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Two Volumes, Demy 4to, 1,270 pages, with Maps, numerous 
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Rivers of Life; 










F.K.G.S., F.E.S.E., M.A.I., A.I.C.E., 
F.R,H.S., F.E.A.SOCY,, &c., &c. 

Contents of Vol. I. 

I. iNTEODtrCTOET .... 

II. Tkee Woeship .... 

III. Sekpent and Phallic Woeship 

IV. FiEE Woeship .... 
V. Sun Woeship . . . 

VI. Ancestoe Woeship 

Contents of Vol. II. 

VII. Early Faiths of Westeen Asia as in Kaldia 
AND Assyria ...... 

VIII. Faiths of Western Aboeigines in Eueope and 
Adjacent Counteies .... 

IX. Faiths of Easteen Aboeigines, Non-Aeyan, Aeyan 









pages 1-141 

„ 142-448 

„ 449-622 


I. A Coloiteed Chakt of all Faith Streams, 7^ feet by 2j feet, 

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II. Map of World, as known about Second Century b.c, showing 
Eaely Races and Faiths. 

III. Sketch Map of Ancient India, and from Baluchistan to 

Anam, showing Early Tribes, their Sacred Places, &c. 

IV. Synoptical Table of Gods, God-Ideas, and many Features 

which all Faiths hate moee or less in Common. If on 
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General FoELONa has now given to the public, in two magnificent quarto 
volumes and chart, the first instalment of his great work on comparative 
religion, and on the natural evolution of existing faiths, which has been in 
preparation for the last seven years. 

The importance of this work consists in its being the first to apply the 
result of modern research and learning to the great subject of Asiatic religions 
in a thoroughly unbiased manner. No one can read the long list of General 
Forlong's authorities without seeing that he is well up to date in his reading, 
although he has also consulted many valuable authorities now rarely read, 
being contained in ponderous and expensive folios. The works of Max Miiller, 
Khys Davics, Beal, Cox, Sayce, and many other standard authorities on 
oriental subjects; of Birch and Brugsch, Renouf and Maspero in Egypt, of 
Haug West and Darmesteter in Persia, together with the latest accounts of 
travellers in Palestine, in China, in Africa, and America, have all been 
ransacked for information. General Forlong is generally able to show how 
little many writers really know of the meaning of the customs, traditions, 
symbolisms, and superstitions concerning which they write. 

The volumes are accompanied by a large separate Chart (price £2), which 
will be found very useful for students anxious to obtain a clear idea of the 
relation and antiquity of the different religious systems, and of the constituents 
of those systems. The various cults of the Tree, the Serpent and Lingam, the 
Fire, the Ancestor, and the Sun, with the later more spiritual conceptions of 
deity as a Father and a Spirit, are distinguished by coloured streams ; and 
the student at a glance can see which of these ideas is embraced by any 
existing creed. 

Many valuable data, chronological and physical, mythological and ethnical, 
are given on the margin of the chart, and all the great Bibles of Asia, and 
Africa, and Europe, are shown in relative position. 

General Forlong's chief claim to speak on these questions lies in the fact 
that he is not a mere bookworm or compiler but an active explorei', and a 
student who has visited the sacred places of which he treats, and has received 
from the lips of living Brahmans and Bikshus their own interpretation of the 
symbolism of the ancient Faiths of India. When General Forlong wished to 
understand Rome or Delphi, Jerusalem or Shcchem, he visited those places 
himself, just as he has visited the famous Indian sites, and as in our own 
islands, he has studied the ruder stone monuments of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland on the spot, and by the light of existing remains in India and else- 
where. In cases where he has not so visited the site, he has diligently collected 
the most recent and authentic information, and with such knowledge of his 
subjects he combines, as we have seen, a wide reading of the latest and the 
earliest literature regarding them in some 700 books, many in eight or ten 
volumes each. The illustrations alone of his work, many of which are 
admirably bold sketches from the original, are of the greatest value to the 
student, and his volumes, with their careful indexes, form a storehouse of 
research and learning, in which future writers might dig long without exhaust- 
ing material. 

Copies may he obtained from the Publisher of the present 







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P.R.a.S., F.E.S.E., M.A.I., A.I.C.E., P.E.H.S., P.E.A.S., ETC., 







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This work is a rnultum in parvo of the growth and 
spread of Phallicism, as we commonly call the worship of 
nature or fertilizing powers. I felt, when solicited to 
enlarge and illustrate it on the sudden death of the 
lamented author, that it would be desecration to touch so 
complete a compendium by one of the most competent 
and soundest thinkers who have written on this world-wide 
faith. None knew better or saw more clearly than 
Mr. Westropp that in this oldest symbolism and worshfp 
lay the foundations of all the goodly systems we call 
Religions; but unfortunately, though writing clearly, 
he has only left to us short and somewhat detached 
Essays, this being the longest I have come across. It was, 
therefore, with deep concern I heard of his death, and 
saw his perhaps last note pencilled at the end of the 
proof-sheets — " Confined to bed with a severe attack of 

He read a Paper, which justly attracted much attention, 
in 1870, before the Anthropological Society, London, in 
the days when such subjects were then possible, as they 
are not now, owing to admission of lady members. Mr. 
J. W. Bouton, of New York, incorporated this in 1875 
with Mr. Staniland Wake's valuable Paper of the same 
period and some others, the whole forming his useful 
publication entitled Ancient Symbol Worship in the Religions 
of Antiquity. Many of the facts there stated — as true for 
all time and necessary to show the continuity of the 

iv Introduction. 

faith — will be found in the present epitome, our only- 
regret being that this short historical summary does not 
extend further in time and space as down to these days 
and islands, indeed to Europe in general, for Mr. 
Westropp's researches had assured him that if the old 
worships are now only dimly perceptible it is not yet so 
with the ancient symbolisms — nay, the tendency has been 
to amplify these, especially in ecclesiastical architecture, 
ornamentation, rites, vestments, &c. He appears to have 
been, from divers causes, averse to drive facts and argu- 
ments home into the midst of existing faiths and sacred 
books, for this is to increase the dislike naturally inherent 
to the subject, and to wound many of the tenderest emo- 
tions of a large class, especially of the more ignorant 
adherents of our own and other Religions. These cannot 
distinguish between the religious student of ancient and 
modern art, tracing the various growths of cults in symbols 
and rituals, from the sceptic or worse, who has come to 
pull down the sacred groves and gods, and thus uproot 
all the cherished feelings with which their holy objects, 
rites and festivals inspire them. They are willing to smile 
over the idea of the origin of a church spire or temple 
minaret, and to laugh at what they think is the mere 
ingenuity of the inquirer, but they frown when the inquiry 
goes further, and solid facts are advanced proving that their 
faith is in every detail a mere evolution of Faiths that 
preceded it, just as they themselves are of previous men. 
They are willing to accept from a poetical point of view 
that " there has been no entirely new religion from the 
beginning of the world," and from a philological, that 
our alphabet has evolved from previous alphabets, and 
these from some scratchings of savage tribes, but not to 

Introduction, v 

carry such evolution theories beyond or into their fancied 
divine ideals. Yet if we are to instruct people aright or to 
investigate an important subject we must do so thoroughly, 
and, marshalling our facts, show their far-reaching sig- 
nificance in all their bearings, at least so far as the 
instructed are capable of comprehending, and not to that 
extent only which they may prefer. The ancient priest 
had his esoteric and exoteric doctrines and mysteries, with 
the object of alluring and keeping within his fold all 
manner of men, women and children, but here we speak 
unto men caring only that they know the truth, not that 
they be won over to our view or that of any other, but 
that they act according to their lights. Mr. Westropp 
here takes the best course in the present crass ignorance 
of Europe by simply massing together a few pregnant 
facts. He avoids the doubtful and all that may lead to 
controversy and annoyance, and calmly rehearses his case 
as a philosopher, physician and friend, who desires that 
the inquirer should know something of his " whence 
and whither," at least so far as the study of history 
and humanity can teach him. We must here say a few 
words regarding the author's very apposite quotations on 
p. 41, for they point to the radical difference between 
real religion and '•^ Religions P ' 

These have been always more or less superstitions or 
beliefs resting mainly on priestly assertions, unproved and 
often incomprehensible, regarding supernatural Powers, 
deities, or spirits and events in the quasi histories of these, 
according to, and on account of which, the followers of 
these ideals were required to shape their conduct, nay, 
their very thoughts. This was the original idea of a 
Religion, but such is no true religion, for this simply con- 

vi Introduction, 

sists of living a just, moral and righteous life, guided by 
the highest ethical ideas we have each attained unto. The 
Religens or "Religious ones" were simply those who 
separated themselves from what they called " the world" 
in order to serve their gods, banding themselves together 
in solitary places, caves, temples, monasteries, &c., so as 
the better to observe (ReHgio) their vows, rites and laws. 
These last they believed came from their Tbeos, Allah or 
other divine Rex, Regis or Prophet. All tribes had laws 
given to them by their priests, of which, perhaps, the 
most perfect specimen is the Dhanna and Vinaya, the 
themis — "Heavenly Law and Way or Discipline" of 
Budhists. The original meaning of Relegare — " to bind 
fast" — was simply a consecration to one particular pur- 
pose, not necessarily a holy one. The priests relegated 
themselves, we may say, to continually reading over, re- 
viewing, or going back upon the services of their gods — ■ 
for ever rehearsing praises and prayers to them in order to 
please them and avert calamities which they feared. It 
was no part of the design of the Religens to serve or 
please their fellows, to inculcate virtue, honour, truth, 
goodness, or even chastity, not to speak of a high moral 
and intellectual life. The truly " Religious" or " Holy 
man" was, as such, entirely unmor^i\. He did not admit 
that the ethics which guided him in his social or family 
life had any place within the hallowed circle of his temple 
or faith. Here he knew of no morality or immorality ; all 
symbols, rites and customs of the faith were divine, and, 
as regards the sanctuary, he was but the servant of his 
god, striving only to honour and serve Hi?n, and for this 
purpose seeking even to debase himself by the most 
shocking and heinous offences, such as he would not, if 

hitroductioiu vii 

otherwise a good man, for a moment tolerate in the family 
circle. Thus there was neither shame nor immorality in 
the rites of Militta described by Herodotos, nor in the 
priestly functions practised to this day by the Gosains or 
" Maha Rajas" of Krishna ; nor in the Jewish leader 
giving a share of the captured Midian women " to the 
Lord" (Num. xxxi. 40) ; nor yet in " the Lord's house" 
being full of shameless women, and worse. Religions 
were not practical guides for the world, but for the 
Religens and the services of the sanctuary, and only prac- 
tical and pious philosophers like Confucius and Budha 
strove to supply to mankind real religion. Even Paul 
taught that " the wisdom of the Greeks" — morals or 
" works," and intellectual attainments, " were foolish- 
ness" — worldly matters beneath the notice of the truly 
" religious ;" that the ignorant faith of a babe was what 
men should strive for, and following Paul, all the Christian 
fathers with few exceptions, down to even Luther and 
Calvin, taught very similar doctrine. "Religion," they 
said, was a Faith, />/j//V, "belief" or "loyalty" to the 
god-idea and tales concerning the god or his incarnations, 
and the greatest sin or " irreligion" was apistia, or want 
of faith. So Mahamadans call their " Religion" Isla?n, or 
" Faith," and only Islamis are accepted by Allah. Luther 
was horrified at much of the writing of yames. He called 
it "an epistle of sham and by no apostle," because that 
writer asks with amazement, " Can faith save any one ?" 
Jerome frequently urges that all secular improvement only 
merits divine punishment, and virtually that those who 
ignore all physical, social and moral laws " are children of 
the unseen but heavenly kingdom." No good Christian 
doubted that unbelievers were to be damned (though our 

viii Introduction. 

beliefs can only follow the laws of evidence), and that 
men like Galileo, Bruno, &c., however moral, good and 
pious in the best sense of these words, were justly con- 
demned to fire here and hereafter. On these grounds 
also, Greeks murdered Sokrates, well known for piety, 
justice, and righteousness, and banished unbelieving Aris- 
totle, Protagoras, and others from their highly " Religious" 
society. St. Augustine was in the habit of saying of 
such really religious men : predestinati sunt in aternum 
igne?n ire cum dlabolo ; and many Christians besides Ignatius 
Loyola urged that " the highest virtue in a Christian is 
the sacrifice of the intellect," and the greatest sin, " lis- 
tening to the dictates of reason." 

In all this we see the childhood of true religion^ which is 
now sapping the foundations of what is called " Religions P 
Mr. Westropp shows their fundamental phase, or that 
substratum from which a beautiful plant is now vigorously 
putting forth its strength in a few favoured localities ; for 
Nature worship is still the prevalent "Religion" of the 
world, and Her Majesty rules over six Worshippers of 
the Reproductive Powers for every Christian in her vast 
empire. It behoves uci, therefore, to study these matters 
if we would know what so-called Religions really are. 



The identity of human nature and of the human mind, 
in all times and in all countries, is the key to the solution 
of many phenomena in the development of man's mind 
and nature. 

Human nature is one and the same everywhere. The 
same wants beget the invention and use of the same 
means to supply those wants. 

The workings of man's mind, being obedient to similar 
laws, are the same, and the thoughts, suggestions, ideas 
and actions proceeding from them, nearly identical in all 
countries ; the same ideas arise within the mind of man, 
suggested by the same objects. 

Hence similar and analogous ideas, beliefs, and super- 
stitious practices are frequently evolved independently 
among different peoples. These are the result of sugges- 
tions arising spontaneously in the human mind at certain 
stages of its development, and which seem almost 

As a remarkable instance of this, I have drawn up the 
following sketch of phallic worship, which is one of those 
beliefs or superstitious practices which have sprung up 
independently and spontaneously, and which seems to have 
extensively prevailed among many nations. 

It will acquire additional interest when it is considered 
that it is one of, if not the most ancient of the supersti- 


lo Nature and Early Man. 

tions of the human race,* that it has prevailed more or 
less among all known peoples in ancient times, and that it 
has been handed down even to a very late and Christian 

In the earlier ages the operations of nature made a 
stronger impression on the minds of men. Those ideas, 
springing from the constant observation of the modes of 
acting in nature, were consequently more readily suggested 
to the minds of all races of men in the primitive ages. 

Two causes must have forcibly struck the minds of 
men in those early periods when observant of the opera- 
tions of nature, one the generative power, the other the 
re-productive, the active and the passive causes. This 
two-fold mode of production visible in nature must have 
given rise to comparisons with the mode of proceeding in 
the generation of animals, in which two causes concur, 
the one active and the other passive ; the one male and 
the other female, the one as father, the other as mother. 
These ideas were doubtless suggested independently 
and spontaneously in different countries ; for the human 
mind is so constituted that the same objects and the same 
operations of nature will suggest like ideas in the minds 
of men of all races, however widely apart. 

Nature to the early man was not brute matter, but a 
being invested with his own personality, and endowed 
with the same feelings, passions, and performing the same 
functions. He could only conceive the course of nature 
from the analogy to his own actions. By " an easy illu- 

* Sex worship is as ancient as star worship, if not more so. Such 
phallicism was the exponent of the principle of renewal and reproduc- 
tion. It was the most natural form of expressing the idea of creation. 
— Bonivick, Egyptian Belief, p. 258. 

Deity and Sex. ii 

sion " the functions of human nature were transferred to 
physical nature. Man not only attributed his own mind 
and feelings to the powers of nature, but also the func- 
tions of his nature — generation, begetting — re-production, 
bringing forth; they became his ideas of cause and 
effect. To the Sun the great^ fecundator, and the 
chief cause of awakening nature into life ; to the 
Earth, the great recipient, in the bosom of which all 
things are produced, man attributed the same powers 
and modes of re-production as in human nature. The 
human intellect being finite, man is incapable of 
imagining a personal god inseparable from the functions 
of human nature. Sex was given to them; the 
Sun or sky was considered the male, or active power ; 
the Earth, the female or passive power. The sky was 
the fecundating and fertilizing power; the earth was 
looked upon as the mould of nature, as the recipient of 
seeds, the nurse of what was produced in its bosom. An 
analogy was suggested in the union of the male and 
female. These comparisons are found in ancient writers. 
" The bright sky," ^schylus* says, " loves to penetrate 
the earth ; the earth, on her part, aspires to the heavenly 
marriage. Rain falling from the watery sky impregnates 
the earth, and she produces for mortals pastures of the 
flocks, and the gifts of Ceres." " The sky," Plutarch 
says, " appeared to men to perform the functions of a 
father, as the earth those of a mother. The sky was the 
father, for it cast seed into the bosom of the earth, which 
on receiving them became fruitful and brought forth, and 
was the mother." This union has been sung in the fol- 
lowing verses by Virgil : — f 

* Danaidcs (Frag. 45, Herm.) f Georg. ii. 325. 

12 Primitive Ideas. 

Turn pater omnipotens fecundis imbribus -£ther 
Conjugis in gremium laetse descendit. 

Columella has related, in his treatise on agriculture, the 
loves of nature, or the marriage of heaven and earth, 
which takes place at the spring of the year. 

" Reverence for the mystery of organized life," as Mrs. 
Child writes, " led to the recognition of a masculine and 
feminine principle in all things spiritual or material. 
Every elemental force was divided into two, the parents 
of other forces. The active mind was masculine, the 
productive earth was feminine." 

"Eminent scholars," remarks Dr. Ginsburg (Moabite 
Stone, p^ge 4^), "who have devoted themselves to the 
investigation of ancient cults, have shown to demonstra- 
tion that the most primitive idea of God was that he 
consisted of a dual nature, masculine and feminine, and 
the connubial contact of this androgynous Deity gave 
birth to creation." 

" The divine power in creation," as Mr. Bonwick 
writes, " was always regarded among the ancients from a 
generative point of view." * 

These ideas bear a prominent part in the religious 
creeds of several nations. In Egypt the Deity or prin- 
ciple of generation was Khem, called " the father " — the 
abstract idea of father, as the goddess Maut was that of 
mother. The office of Khem was not confined to the 

* The first verse of the Book of Genesis declares creation to have 
been a series of Toledoth, or generations. It is properly translated 
"God (the Elohim — or rather J./f-/OT) engendered (B'RA)the heavens 
and the earth." In the language of Plato: — "The Supreme God 
generated the gradual succession of dependant spirits, of gods, ot 
daemons, of heroej and of men. 

his and Osiris. 13 

procreation and continuation of the human species, but 
extended even to the vegetable world, over which he 
presided, when we find his statue accompanied by trees 
and plants ; and kings offering to him herbs of the ground, 
cutting the corn before him, or employed in his presence 
tilling the land, and preparing it to receive the generating 
influence of the deity. Khem was styled Amnion generator, 
and was represented ithyphallic. 

As Mr. Bonwick writes, " When Ammon, Ptah, Khem, 
Osiris, or Horus appear in ithyphallic guise, it is in their 
condition as the Demiurgus, by whom the worlds were 

At Philas Osiris was worshipped as the generating 
cause, and Isis the receptive mould. 

At Mendis Osiris was considered to be the male prin- 
ciple, and Isis a form of the female principle. Plutarch 
tells us in his Jsis and Osiris that in the Egyptian belief, 
when a planet entered into a sign, their conjunction was 
denominated a marriage. 

Synesius gives an Inscription on an Egyptian deity, 
" Thou art the father and thou art the mother. Thou 
art the male and thou art the female." 

Mr. Mahaffy, in his Prolegojnena, p. 267, gives the 
following Egyptian text : — " God is the sun himself in- 
carnate ; his commencement is from the beginning. He 
is the God who has existed of old. There is no God 
without him. A mother hath not borne him, nor a father 
begotten him. God-Goddess created from himself, all 
the gods have existed as soon as he began." Upon the 
latter phrases Mr. Chabas remarks, "These two latter 
phrases are the most exact formula, the most simple of 
Egyptian theology, such as it was taught in the highest 

14 Sfi)a and Brahma, 

system of initiation. A sole deity, invested with the 
power of production — that is to say, of the two principles, 
male and female — he created himself before all things, 
and the arrival of the gods was only a diffusion, a mani- 
festation of his different faculties and of his all-powerful 
will." In a hymn the deity is thus addressed, " Glory to 
thee who hast begotten all that exists, who hast made 
man, who hast made the gods." 

The Egyptian Triads were composed of father, mother, 
and son — that is, the male and female principles of nature, 
with their product. 

In the Saiva Purana of the Hindus, Siva says : " From 
the supreme spirit proceed Purusha (the generative or 
male principle), Prakriti (the productive or female prin- 
ciple), and Time ; and by them was produced this universe, 
the manifestation of one God. ... Of all organs of 
sense and intellect, the best is mind, which proceeds from 
Ahankara, Ahankara from intellect, intellect from the 
supreme being, who is, in fact, Purusha. It is the 
primeval male, whose form constitutes the universe, and 
whose breath is the sky ; and though incorporeal, that 
male am I." 

In the Kritya Tatwa, Siva is thus addressed by 
Brahma ; " I know that Thou, O Lord, art the eternal 
Brahm, that seed which, being received in the womb 
of the Sakti (aptitude to conceive), produced this 
universe ; that thou united with thy Sakti dost create the 
universe from this own substance like the web from the 
spider." In the same creed Siva is described as the per- 
sonification of Surya, the sun ; Agni, the fire, or genial 
heat which pervades, generates, and vivifies all ; he is 

The Female Principle. 15 

Bhava, the lord of Bhavani the universal mother, goddess 
of nature and of the earth. 

In one of the hymns of the Rig Veda quoted by- 
Professor Monier Williams {Hinduism, p. 26) we per- 
ceive the first dim outline of the remarkable idea that the 
Creator willed to produce the universe through the 
agency and co-operation of a female principle — an idea 
which afterwards acquired more definite shape in the sup- 
posed marriage of heaven and earth. In the Veda also 
various deities were regarded as the progeny resulting 
from the fancied union of Earth with Dyaus, " heaven ;" 
just as much of the later mythology may be explained by 
a supposed blending of the male and female principles in 
nature. In the Sajiia-Veda (viii. p. 44) the idea is more 
fully expressed : " He felt not delight, being alone. He 
wished another, and instantly became such. He caused 
his own self to fall in twain, and thus became husband 
and wife. He approached her, and thus were produced 
human beings." 

"Brahma," the creator, writes Professor Williams, "was 
made to possess a double nature, or, in other words, two 
characters — one quiescent, the other active. The active 
was called his Sakti, and was personified as his wife, or 
the female half of his essence. The Sakti of the creator 
ought properly to represent the female creative capacity, 
but the idea of the blending of the male and female prin- 
ciples in creation seems to have been transferred to Siva 
and his Sakti Parvati. One of the representatives of 
Siva is half-male and half-female, emblematic of the in- 
dissoluble unity of the creative principle (hence his name, 
Ard-hand risd, the half female lord "). 

Siva represented the Fructifying Principle, the genera- 

1 6 Babylonian Mythology. 

ting power that pervades the universe, producing sun, 
moon, stars, men, animals, and plants. His wife, or Sakti, 
was Parvati, for each divine personage was associated 
with a consort, to show that male and female, man and 
wife, are ever indissolubly united as the sources of repro- 

In China, according to Prof. Muller,* we find the 
recognition of two powers, one active, the other passive, 
one male, the other female, which comprehend everything, 
and which, in the mind of the more enlightened, tower 
high above the great crowd of minor spirits. These two 
powers are within and beneath and behind everything 
that is double in nature, and they have been frequently 
identified with heaven and earth. In the Sim-King we 
are told that heaven and earth together are the father 
and mother of all things. 

At the head of the Babylonian mythology stands a 
deity who was sometimes identified with the heavens, 
sometimes considered as the ruler and god of heaven. 
This deity is named Anu. He represents the universe as 
the upper and lower regions, and when these were 
divided the upper region or heaven was called Anu, while 
the lower region or earth was called Anatu. Anu being 
the male principle, and Anatu the female principle, or 
wife of Anu. 

The successive forms, Lahina and Lahama, Sar and 
Kisar, are represented in some of the god lists as names 
or manifestations of Anu and Anatu. In each case 
there appears to be a male and female principle, which 
principles combine in the formation of the universe.! 

* Lectures on the Science of Religion, 
f Smith's Cljalclaan Genesis, p. 54. 

The God of the Moabites. 17 

Among the Assyrians the supreme god, Bel, was 
styled " the procreator ;" and his wife, the goddess 
Mylitta, represented the productive principle of nature, 
and received the title of the queen of fertility. Among 
the Assyrian deities, writes Dr. Ginsburg {Moablte 
stone, page 43), " the name Ashtar or Ashter means 
generative power, tied together, joined, coupled connubial 
contact, whilst Astarte is the feminine half or companion 
of the productive power." 

Another deity, the god Vul, the god of the atmosphere, 
is styled the beneficent chief, the giver of abundance, the 
lord of fecundity. On Assyrian cylinders he is represented 
as a phallic deity. With him is associated a goddess Shala, 
whose ordinary title is " Sarrat," queen, the feminine of 
the word " Sar," which means chief. Sir Henry Raw- 
linson remarks with regard to the Assyrian Sun, or Shamas, 
the sun-god, that the idea of the motive influence of the 
sun-god in all human affairs arose from the manifest agency 
of the material sun in stimulating the functions of Nature. 
On the Moabite stone the god of the Moabites is called 
Ashtar-Chemosh — Chemosh meaning the conqueror, and 
Ashtai the producer — a joint name, which implies an 
androgynous (male and female) deity. In Phoenician 
mythology, Ouranos (heaven) weds Ghe (the earth), and 
by her becomes father of Oceanus, Hyperion, lapetus, 
Cronos, and other gods. In conformity with the religious 
ideas of the Greeks and Romans, Virgil describes the 
products of the earth as the result of the conjugal act 
between Jupiter (the sky) and Juno (the earth.) According 
to St. Augustin the sexual organ of man was consecrated 
in the temple of Liber, that of woman in the sanctuaries 
of Liberia ; these two divinities were named father and 

1 8 Paintings at Pompeii. 

mother. According to Payne Knight, Priapus, in his 
character of a procreative deity, is celebrated by the Greek 
poets under the title of Love or Attraction, the first prin- 
ciple of animation ; the father of gods and men, and the 
regulator and dispenser of all things. He is said to 
pervade the universe with the motion of his wings, bringing 
pure light ; and thence to be called " the splendid, the 
self illumined, the ruling Priapus." In Greece he was 
regarded as the promoter of fertility both in vegetation 
and in all animals. According to Natalis Comes, the 
worship of Priapus was introduced at Athens by virtue of 
a command of an oracle. 

Among the paintings found at Pompeii there are several 
representations of sacrifices of goats, and offerings of milk 
and flowers to Priapus. The god is represented as a 
Hermes on a square pedestal, with the usual characteristics 
of the deity, a prominent phallus. Similar Hermas or 
Priapi were placed at the meeting of two or three roads. 
One of these paintings represents a sacrifice or offering 
to Priapus, made by two persons. The first is a young 
man with a dark skin, entirely naked, except the animal's 
skin, which is wrapt round his loins ; his head is encircled 
with a wreath of leaves. He carries in his hands a basket 
in which are flowers and vegetables, the first offerings of 
his humble farm. He bends to place them at the foot of 
a small altar on which is a small statue in bronze repre- 
senting the god of gardens. On the other side is a 
woman, also wearing a wreath, and dressed in a yellow 
tunic with green drapery. She holds in her left 
hand a golden dish, and in her right a vase. She 
appears to be bringing to the god of gardens an offering 
of milk : — 

The Japanese Creed. 19 

" Sinum lactis, et hasc te liba, Priape, quotannis 
Expectare sat est : custos es pauperis horti." 

Virgil, Eel vii., 33. 

Offerings were made to Priapus according to the season 
of the year : — 

"Vere rosa, autumno pomis, estate frequenter 
Spicis : una mihi est horrida pestis hyems." 

Priap. Veter. Epigr. 96. 

In another painting Priapus is represented as placed on 
a square stone, against which rest two sticks. The statue 
appears to be of bronze. Its head is covered with a cap, 
he has a small mantle on his shoulder, and exhibits his 
usual prominent characteristic. The statue is evidently- 
placed by the road side, and he holds a stick in his hand 
to point out the way to travellers. In a Priapic figure of 
bronze he is styled Swn7p Koanov as his symbol contributed 
to the reproduction and perpetuation of mankind. Mutinus 
was among the Romans the same as Priapus among the 
Greeks, as they both were personifications of the fructifying 
power of Nature. According to Herodotus and Pau- 
sanias statues of Mercury were represented as ithyphallic. 
The latter mentions one in particular at Cyllene. 

In Mr. F. V. Dickens' «A Brief Account of the chief 
cosmical ideas now current among the better educated 
classes in Japan" he writes : — " In the Japanese creed 
there are two elemental principles from the combination 
of which everything originates — a Male, or developing one, 
and a Female, or receptive one. The Earth is supposed 
to have been formed by the condensation of the Female 
principle in the middle of the Heavens ; the Sun, on the 
contrary, was the product of the great Male principle." 

In the Sintoo creed in Japan, Heaven, or the sky. 

2,0 A New Zealand Myth. 

married the Earth and became the author of mankind, 
having first raised up the dry land for their abode, 
beginning with the island of Kiu-Siu, by fishing it up with 
his spear from the bottom of the ocean. 

We find similar ideas in the religious creeds of America 
and of the remote islands of the Pacific Ocean. According 
to the Indians of Central America, Famagostad and 
Zipaltonal, the first male and the second female, created 
heaven and earth, man and all things. 

" As in Oriental legends," writes Mr. Brinton,* " the 
origin of man from the earth was veiled under the story 
that he was the progeny of some mountain fecundated by 
the embrace of Mithras or Jupiter, so the Indians often 
pointed to some height or some cavern, as the spot whence 
the first of men issued, adult and armed from the womb 
of the all-mother Earth. 

The Tahitians imagined that everything which exists 
in the universe proceeds from the union of two beings ; 
one of them was named Taroataihetounou ; the other 
Tepapa ; they were supposed to produce continually and 
by connection the days and months. These islanders 
supposed that the sun and moon, which are gods, had 
begotten the stars, and that the eclipses were the time of 
their copulation. 

A New Zealand myth says we have two primeval 
ancestors, a father and a mother. They are Rangi and 
Papa, heaven and earth. The earth, out of which all 
things are produced, is our mother; the protecting and 
over-ruling heaven is our father. 

It is thus evident that the doctrine of the reciprocal 
principles of nature, or nature active and passive, male 

* Myths of the Old IVorhl, p. 224. 

Phallus and Kteis. 1 1 

and female, was recognised in nearly all the primitive 
religious systems of the old as well as of the new world, 
and none more clearly than in those of Central America ; 
thus proving not only the wide extent of the doctrine, 
but also a separate and independent origin, springing 
from those innate principles which are common to human 
nature in all climes and races. Hence the almost uni- 
versal reverence paid to the images of the sexual parts, as 
they were regarded as symbols and types of the genera- 
tive and productive principles in nature, and of those 
gods and goddesses who were the representatives of the 
same principles. "The first doctrine to be taught men 
would have relation to their being. The existence of a 
creator could be illustrated by a potter at the wheel. 
But there was a much more expressive form familiar to 
them, indicative of cause and effect in the production of 
births in the tribe, or in nature. In this way the phallus 
became the exponent of creative power ; and, though to 
our eyes vulgar and indecent, bore no improper meaning 
to the simple ancient worshipper." — Bonwick, Egyptian 
Belief, p. 257. The Phallus and the Kteis, the Lingam 
and the Yoni — the special parts contributing to generation 
and production — becoming thus symbols of those active 
and passive causes, could not fail to become objects of 
reverence and worship. The union of the two symbolized 
the creative energy of all nature ; for almost all primitive 
religion consisted in the reverence and worship paid to 
nature and its operations. 

We may remark further, that the custom of wor- 
shipping what contributes to our wants and necessities, is 
frequently met with among uncivilised races. "In India," 
says Dubois, "a woman adores the basket which serves 

22 A Festival in Egypt. 

to bring or to hold necessaries, and offers sacrifices 
to it, as well as to the rice mill, and other implements that 
assist her in her household labours. A carpenter does 
the like homage to his hatchet, his adze, and other 
tools, and likewise offers sacrifice to them. A Brahman 
does so to the style with which he is going to write ; a 
soldier to the arms he is to use in the field ; a mason to 
his trowel ; and a labourer to his plough." Hence it be- 
comes intelligible that the organs of generation, which 
contribute to the production of living things, should receive 
worship and reverence. 

Evidence that this worship of the organs of genera- 
tion extensively prevailed will be found in many coun- 
tries, both in ancient and modern times. It occurs in 
ancient Egypt, in India, in Syria, in Babylon, in Persia, 
Greece, Italy, Spain, Germany, Scandinavia, among the 
Gauls, and even in America among the Mexicans and 
Peruvians. In Egypt the phallus is frequently repre- 
sented as the symbol of generation. Numerous writers 
have maintained that the ankh, or T, [tau) as the sign of 
life, was the phallus ; and the crux ansata ? the com- 
bined male and female organs : just as the sistrum, or guitar 
of Egypt, and the delta A (lands on which the gods 
played and produced all life) represented Isis or "woman."* 
Herodotus thus describes a festival in Egypt, which he had 
evidently seen himself: — "The festival is celebrated almost 

* In the Egyptian hieroglyphics homonyms are frequently used, that is, 
words with two meanings, one that of an idea, the other that of an object. 
In the hieroglyphs, the object was put for the idea — thus neter means 
both "God" and "hatchet;" so a hatchet was placed for " God ; 
again nofre means " good " and a " guitar ;" the guitar therefore was 
placed for *' good." 

The Symbol of Resurrection. -23 

exactly as Bacchic festivals in Greece. They also use instead 
of phalli another invention consisting of images a cubit high, 
pulled by strings, which the women carry round to the 
villages. The virile member of these figures is scarcely less 
than the rest of the body, and this member they contrive 
to move. A piper goes in front and the women follow, 
singing hymns in honour of Bacchus." These figures doubt- 
less represented the god Khem or the generative principle. 

Among the royal offerings to Amen by Rameses III. in 
the Great Harris Papyrus are loaves (called Taenhannu) 
in the form of the phallus. 

In the Pamelia the Egyptians exhibited a statue pro- 
vided with three phalli. In the festivals of Bacchus, 
who was considered the same as Osiris, celebrated by 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, a gilt phallus, 120 cubits high, was 
carried in procession. 

The phallus, so conspicuous in Egyptian theology, 
was associated with another idea than creation. It ex- 
pressed resurrection. For this reason, it was pictured 
on coffins, and in tombs it told survivors that there was 
hope in the future. Vitality was not extinct. Upon this 
Mariette finely observes, " These images only symbolize 
in a very impressive manner the creative force of nature, 
without obscene intention. It is another way to express 
celestial generation, which should cause the deceased to 
enter a new life." 

Ithyphallic representations set forth the resurrection of 
the body. In Denon's Egypte is figured the representa- 
tion of a god with a green face, a sun's disk on each side, 
and stars around, while below the prominent member sat 
several small figures, as men waiting for the exertion of 
the resurrecting power of the deity. 

24 The 'Jewish Ark. 

The Viscount de Rouge gives the following description 
of a scene represented on a sarcophagus : — " The right 
side presents six personages in the attitude of prayer be- 
fore a body without head, shut up in an t^<g. This ithy- 
phallic body's seed is collected by the first two personages. 
This scene symbolizes the perpetual cycle of life, which is 
re-born from the dead." 

According to Ptolemy, the phallus was the object of 
religious worship among the Abyssinians, and also among 
the Persians. In Syria Baal-Peor was represented with 
a phallus in his mouth, according to St. Jerome. At the 
entrance of the temple at Hieropolis, a human figure, 
with a phallus of monstrous size, of 120 cubits in height, 
was to be observed. Twice each year a man mounted to 
the top of this colossus, by the means of a cord and a 
piece of wood, fixed in the phallus, and on, which he 
placed his foot. This man passed, it is said, seven days 
and seven nights on this phallus, without sleeping. It 
was thought that thus raised above the earth and nearer 
the abode of the gods, this man could offer up vows 
with more success, and thus many claimed the assistance 
of his prayers, by placing precious gifts at the foot of the 
phallus. The Jews did not escape this worship, and we 
see their women manufacturing phalli of gold and of 
silver, as we find in Ezekiel xvi. 17. General Forlong 
{Rivers of Life, I. 158 — 170) advances arguments show- 
ing that the god of the Jewish ark was a sexual symbol 
called, as in Exodus (xvi. 34), the eduth. 

Among the Hindoos a religious reverence was exten- 
sively paid to the Lingam and the Yoni. From time 
immemorial, a symbol (the linga and yoni combined) has 
been worshipped in Hindostan as the type of creation, or 


A Cbrysoberyl Linga, 25 

the origin of life. It is the most common symbol of Siva, 
and is universally connected with his worship.* 

"In the character of the eternal reproductive powers 
of nature," writes Prof. Monier Williams, " he is rather 
represented by a symbol (the linga and yoni combined^ 
than by any human personification, and temples to hold 

* The following description of a linga made out of a single chryso- 
beryl is taken from The Times of Oct. Ilth, 1882 : — A Chrysoberyl 
Linga. — An emblem of a primitive cult, which in varied forms appears 
in the mythology of India, Greece, Egypt, and the Semitic peoples 
among others, and which in India has survived to the present day, has 
recently been placed for a time in the collection of Mr. Bryce Wright, 
the mineralogist. This curious jewelled symbol of the re-productive 
powers of nature, which to Anglo-Indians is known as the Hindoo 
Lingam god, is formed of a fine pear-shaped chrysoberyl, or cat's eye 
stone, representing the linga of the followers of Siva, set in a great yellow 
topaz as an altar, the yon'i or image of fertility of the followers of 
Vishnu. A band of diamonds encircles the setting of the topaz, 
which is about r| of an inch in its greatest length, and below, round 
the stand of gold, in the form of a truncated cone, are placed in obvious 
symbolism large precious stones — a ruby, a sapphire, a pale yellow 
chrysoberyl, coral, a pearl, a hyacinthine, or deep amber-coloured 
garnet, a pale yellow sapphire, an emerald, and a diamond. The 
gold is of 22 carat fineness, and the height of the whole idol is 
2^ inch. According to writers on precious stones, the cat's eye 
chrysoberyl is a gem held in esteem among the Hindoos next to the 
diamond, and it is regai'ded by the common people not only as a charm 
against witchcraft, but as conferring good luck on the possessor. This 
one is of dark brown, the mobile ray of opalescent light crossing the 
height of the stone in an oblique direction. Its history can be traced 
for some 1 700 years, and an admirer of the gem has tried to compute 
the number of millions of Hindoo women who had journeyed from 
all India to pay their devotion to the god in the 1,000 years before 
it was seized by a Mahommedan conqueror. On the breaking out of 
the mutiny in 1857, it was removed by the Queen of Delhi, and she 
parted with it to the present owner." 

In the collection of Dr. Wise is a lingam, of about 6 inches long, of 
that rare stone green aventurine, with the head of Siva carved on it. 

26 Devotees of Siva, 

this symbol, which is of a double form to express the 
blending of the male and female principles in creation, are 
probably the most numerous of any temples now to be 
seen in India." It is usually placed in the inmost recess 
or sanctuary, sculptured in granite, marble or ivory, often 
crowned with flowers, and surmounted by a golden 
star. Lamps are kept burning before it, and on festival 
occasions it is illuminated by a lamp with seven branches, 
supposed to represent the planets. Small images of this 
emblem, carved in ivory, gold, or crystal, are often worn 
as ornaments about the neck. The Taly which the 
Brahmin consecrates, which the newly-married man 
attaches to the neck of his wife, and which she was 
bound to wear as long as she lived, is usually a Lin- 
gam. The pious use them in their prayers, and often 
have them buried with them. Devotees of Siva have it 
written on their foreheads in the form of a perpendicular 
mark. Each follower of Siva is bound to perform the 
Abichegam, a ceremony which consists, according to 
Sonnerat, in pouring milk on the lingam. 

These symbols are found in the temple excavations of 
the Islands of Salsette and Elephanta, of unknown anti- 
quity ; on the grotto-temples of Ellora, at the " Seven 
Pagodas," on the Coromandel coast, in the old temple at 
Tanjore, and elsewhere where Siva worship is in the 

The extent to which the Linga Worship prevails 
throughout India is thus noticed by Professor Wilson in 
the Asiatic Researches. " Its prevalence throughout the 
whole tract of the Ganges, as far as Benares, is suffi- 
ciently conspicuous. In Bengal, the temples are com- 
monly erected in a range of six, eight, or twelve, on 

Linga Worship in India. 27 

each side of a ghaut leading to the river. Each of 
the temples in Bengal consists of a single chamber, 
of a square form, surmounted by a pyramidal centre ; 
the area of each is very small ; the Linga, of black or 
white marble, occupies the centre ; the offerings are pre- 
sented at the threshold. Benares, however, is the peculiar 
seat of this form of worship, the principal deity, Viswes- 
wara, "The Lord of all," is a linga, and most of the 
chief objects of the pilgrimage are similar blocks of 
stone. Particular divisions of the pilgrimage direct visit- 
ing forty-seven Lingas, all of pre-eminent sanctity ; but 
there are hundreds of inferior note still worshipped, and 
thousands whose fame and fashion have passed away." 

For ages before and up to the period of the Moham- 
medan invasion of India in the eleventh century, there 
were twelve great and specially holy Lingas in various 
parts of India. Some were destroyed during the Moham- 
medan conquest. One of them was the idol of Somnath, 
a block of stone four or five cubits high, and of pro- 
portionate thickness. Brahminical records refer it to the 
time of Krishna, implying an antiquity of 4,000 years. 
It is very probable that the worship of Siva, under the 
type of the Linga, prevailed throughout India as early as 
the fifth or sixth century of the Christian era ; but 
phallic worship existed from unknown time. 

One of the forms in which the Linga worship appears 
is that of the Lingayets, Lingawants, or Jangamas, the 
essential characteristic of which is wearing the emblem 
on some part of the dress or person. The type is of 
small size, made of copper or silver, and is commonly 
worn suspended in a case round the neck, or in the tur- 
ban. The morning devotions of the worshippers of the 

28 Prayer in Tibet. 

Linga, as an emblem of Siva, is thus described by Dr. 
DufF in his India and Indian Missions : — " After ascend- 
ing from the waters of the river, they distribute them- 
selves along the muddy banks. Each then takes up a 
portion of clay, and beginning to mould it into the form 
of the Lingam, devoutly says, 'Reverence to Hara (a 
name of Siva), I take this lump of clay ;' next addressing 
the clay, he says, ' Siva, I make thy image.' The linga 
being now formed, he presents to it water from the 
Ganges, and various offerings. He then worships, re- 
hearsing the names and attributes of the god ; and offers 
flowers all round the image, commencing from the east ; 
— adding : ' Receive, O Siva, these offerings of flowers. 
Thus do I worship thee.' Again and again he worships 
and bows. He last of all throws the flowers into the 
water, prays to Siva to grant him temporal favours and 
blessings ; twines his fingers one into the other ; places 
the image once more before him; and then flings it 

There is no country in the world where they pray 
more than in Tibet. An ejaculatory prayer of six syl- 
lables is continually on the lips of all the inhabitants of 
that country. The shepherd repeats it in tending his 
flocks, the merchant in awaiting a purchaser, the women 
when engaged in household affairs. It is a sort of ave 
?naria or repetition of the talismanic words : — " Om mani 
padmi oum," Oh (Lord) the Jewel in the lotus. It is of 
Hindu origin, and in India it could have had no other source 
than in the worship of Siva. " In fact," says M. Michel 
ISJ icolas, " it represents a symbol of Siva, the lingam in the 
yoni, rhat is to say, the union of the male and female prin- 
ciple. With the adorers of Siva, the mani (the jewel) is one 

Phallopbori and Ithyphalli. 29 

of the most usual names of the lingam, and the yoni is 
represented by the padmi (lotus). This formula is, in 
its most primitive sense, an invocation to the universal 
creative energy, which is here represented under a symbol 
much used in the worship of Siva. It is absolutely 
foreign to Buddhism, as well with regard to the idea it 
expresses, as with regard to the form under which this 
idea is represented ; it was not introduced into it until 
the worship of Siva became blended, in Nepaul, with 
Buddhist ideas. But the simple devotees of the country 
of snow, and of the country of herbs, entertain no doubts 
on the origin, nor on the real meaning of that obscure 
formula, and are fully convinced that in reciting it they 
are invoking the celestial spirits."* 

Worship and reverence were also paid to the Phallus 
and Kteis among the Greeks and Romans. 

According to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, the 
worship of Bacchus was imported into Greece by Me- 
lampus. " It was he," Herodotus says, " who taught the 
Greeks the name of Bacchus, the ceremonies of his wor- 
ship, and who introduced among them the procession of 
the phallus." " Nothing is more simple," are Plutarch's 
words, " than the manner in which they celebrated 
formerly, in my country, the Dionysiaca. Two men 
walked at the head of the procession ; one carried an 
amphora of wine, the other a vine branch, a third dragged 
a goat ; a fourth bore a basket of figs ; a figure of a 
phallus closed the procession." 

There was a class of actors called phallophori and 
ithyphalli, who appeared in the procession of the Diony- 
siaca. The first bore long poles surmounted by the 

* Boudin. 

JO Festival of Venus, 

phallus, and crowned with violets and ivy. They walked 
along, repeating obscene songs, called 4>a\\iKa aa-fiara. The 
latter had their heads covered with wreaths, their hands 
full of flowers, and pretended to be drunk. They bore 
on their waistband large phalli made of wood or 

In the basket carried on the head of the Canephori in 
the Dionysiac processions, among other symbols was the 
phallus. One of the personages of the comedy of the 
Acharnians says (v. 242), "Advance canephoros, and let 
Xanthias (the slave), place the phallus erect." A hymn 
was then sung, which Aristophanes calls phallic. The 
Greeks usually represented the phallus alone, as a direct 
symbol, the meaning of which seems to have been among 
the last discoveries revealed to the initiated. It was 
the same, in emblematical writing, as the Orphic epithet, 
IlArrENETQP, universal generator.^ 

That which the mysteries of Eleusis, Tertullian says, 
consider as most holy, that which is concealed with most 
care, what they are admitted to the knowledge of only 
at the latest moment, what the ministers of religion called 
epoptse, excite the most ardent desire for, is the image of 
the virile member. 

Dr. Schliemann gives a figure of a phallus of white 
marble in his Troja, page 173, found in the ruins of the 
second city. 

In Rome, in the month of April, when the fertilising 
powers of nature begin to operate, and its productive 
powers to be visibly developed, a festival in honour of 
Venus took place ; in it the phallus was carried in a cart, 
and led in procession by the Roman ladies to the temple 

* Payne Knight. 

Roman Monuments. 31 

of Venus outside the Colline gate, and then presented 
by them to the sexual part of the goddess. 

The special time for the erection and worship of the 
phallus was the spring, as we learn from a passage of 
lamblichus De Mysterils : — " We say the erection of the 
phalli is a certain sign of prolific power, which, through 
this, is called forth to the generative energy of the world, 
on which account many phalli are consecrated in the 
spring, because then the whole world receives from 
the gods the power which is productive of all gene- 
ration. '" 

At Lavinium, they carried in the streets, every day, 
during a month, a phallus remarkable for its proportions. 
The grossest expressions were then used on all sides ; a 
mother of one of the most distinguished families of the 
city had to place a crown on this obscene image. At last 
the disorder reached such a pitch that it attracted the atten- 
tion of the Roman Senate in the year ^6y. 

The Romans named Mutinus or Tutinus, the isolated 
phallus, and Priapus, the phallus affixed to a Hermes. 

The Roman ladies offered publicly wreaths to Priapus, 
and they hung them on the phallus of the divinity. 

The kteis or female organ, as the symbol of the passive 
or productive powers of nature, generally occurs on ancient 
Roman monuments, as the Concha Veneris, a Fig, Barley 
Corn, and the letter Delta. 

The stone, which was brought from Phrygia, and 
which represented the great Mother Goddess Cybele, 
resembled a vulva, for it represented the kteis — that is 
to say, the female organ. "In other words," writes 
M. G. du Mousseaux, " it reproduced one of the types, 

* Taylor'' s Trans., page 53. 

32 The Universal Cult, 

by the image of which the ancients represented the God- 
dess Nature." 

In the Thesmophoria, the kteis was the object of 
public veneration, according to Sainte Croix. (^Mysteres 
du Paganisme, vol. ii., p. 13.) 

Among the German and Scandinavian nations, the 
god Fricco corresponds to the Priapus of the Romans. 
Among the Saxons, he was adored under the form of a 

In his ecclesiastical history of the North, Adam de 
Brome speaks of a temple at Upsala, in Sweden, in 
which the god Fricco was represented with an enormous 

In Spain, Priapus was worshipped under the name of 
Hortanes, and in the ancient Nebrissa, the modern Lebrixa, 
a town of Andalusia, his worship was established. " The 
inhabitants of Nebrissa," says Silius Italicus, " celebrate 
the orgies of Bacchus. Light satyrs and bacchantes, covered 
with the sacred skin, are to be seen there, carrying during 
the nocturnal ceremonies the statue of Bacchus Hor- 
tanes." (See Bella Punico /., v. 395.) 

This worship has been found in different parts of 
America, in Mexico, Peru, Chili, at Hayti. In the Libri 
collection, sold some years ago at Sotheby's, was a statuette 
in solid gold from Mexico. It was thus described in the 
catalogue : — " The lower portion is very singular, being 
Phallic, and may therefore be meant as a representation 
of an aboriginal deity similar to the Priapus of ancient 
mythology. It is two inches (five centimetres) in height, 
and weighs about seven-eighths of an ounce." According 
to Mr. Stephens, the upright pillar in front of the 
temples of Yucatan is a phallus. At Copan are several 

Phallic Worship in America. t^t^ 

monoliths, or phallic pillars, some of them in a rough state, 
and others sculptured ; on one of the latter are carved 
emblems relative to uterine existence, parturition, etc. In 
Panuco was found in the temple a phallus, and in bas- 
relief in public places w^ere deposited the sacred membra 
conjuncta in coitu. There v^^ere also similar symbols in 
Tlascala, We read in an ancient document, written by- 
one of the companions of Fernando Cortez : — " In certain 
countries, and particularly at Panuco, they adore the 
phallus (il membro che portano gli uomini fra le gambe), 
and it is preserved in the temples." The inhabitants of 
Tlascala also paid worship to the sexual organs of a man 
and woman. In Peru several representations in clay of 
the phallus are met with. Juan de Batangos, in his 
History of the Incas, an unpublished manuscript in the 
library of the Escurial, says that " in the centre of the 
great square or court of the temple of the Sun, at Cuzco, 
was a column or pillar of stone, of the shape of a loaf of 
sugar, pointed at the top, and covered with gold leaf." * 
In Chili rude phallic figures are found of silver or of gold. 
At Hayti, according to M. Artaud, phalli have been dis- 
covered in different parts of the island, and are believed 
to be undoubtedly the manufacture of the original inha- 
bitants of the island. At Honduras is an " idol of round 
stone" with two faces, representing the Lord of Life, 
which the Indians adore, oflFering blood procured from the 
prepuce. The Abbe de Bourbourg, who made careful 
explorations in Mexico and Central America, confirms 
these statements in regard to the Phallic symbolism in 
these countries. 

It is probable that the mound-builders of North- 

* Squier's Serpent Symboly p. 50. 

34 Germany in the 12th Century. 

America were votaries of the same worship. Professor 
Troost has procured several images in Smith country, 
Tennessee, one of which was endowed disproportionately, 
like a Pan, or the idol at Lampsacus. Dr. Ramsay, of 
Knoxville, also describes two phallic simulacra in his 
possession, twelve and fifteen inches in length. The 
shorter one was of amphibolic rock, and so very hard 
that steel could make no impression upon it. 

In one of the Marianne Islands, of the Pacific 
Ocean, on festive occasions a phallus, highly ornamented, 
called by the natives Tinas, is carried in procession. 
Phallic figures are of frequent occurrence in New Zea- 
land. In Carl Bock's work on Borneo^ p, 232, a Phallic 
figure is represented in almost the identical position of 
the god Khem in Egypt. " The phallic idea," writes 
Mr. Bonwick, " so strongly represented in every other 
part of the world as the type of creative force, was not 
unknown in Tasmania and Australia." 

There are numerous evidences that Phallic worship 
was retained to a late period in Modern Europe. 

The following notices of Phallic worship in modern 
times are taken from Boudin on Phallic Worship. 

In Germany, the worship of Priapus was maintained 
even as late as the 12 th centurv. 

The inhabitants of Slavonia still following, in the 12th 
century, pagan customs, paid worship to Priapus, under 
the name of Pripe-gala. This people, who were hostile 
to their neighbours, who had embraced Christianity, 
made frequent incursions into the dioceses of Magdeburg 
and Sax. Several Saxon princes united, about the year 
mo, to implore assistance from the neighbouring 
powers. They wrote to the predates of Germany, of 

The Fascinu?n in. France. ^^, 

Lorraine, and of France, and laid before them the deplor- 
able situation in which the hate of these idolaters had 
plunged them, "Every time," they said, "that these 
fanatics assembled to celebrate their religious ceremonies, 
they announce that their god Pripe-gala is, according to 
them, the same as Priapus, or the indecent Belphegor. 
When they have cut off some Christians' heads, before 
the profane altar of their god, they utter most terrible 
hov^^ls and cry out : ' Let us rejoice to-day, Christ is 
vanquished, and our invincible Pripe-gala is his con- 
queror.' " 

In France, a document entitled Sacerdotal judgment s 
on Crimes^ which seems to be of the 8 th century, con- 
tains the following : — " If any one performs enchant- 
ments before xhefascinum, let him do penance on bread 
and water during three lents." 

The Council of Chalons, held in the 9th century, 
forbids this custom, inflicts punishment on whoever per- 
forms it, and thus attests its existence at that period. 
Burchard, who lived in the 12th century, gives the article 
of this Council in the following words : — " If any one 
performs incantations before the fascinum, he shall do 
penance on bread and water during three lents." 

The Synodal Statutes of the Church of Mans, which 
are of the year 1247, inflicts the same punishment on 
whoever " had sinned before the fascinum." In the 
14th century the Synodal Statutes of the Church of 
Tours, of the year 1396, forbid these acts. These 
statutes were then translated into French, and the word 
" fascinum " is there explained by that of " fesne :" 
"If any one performs any incantations before the 
fesne." ... 

^6 Saint Foutin. 

In the Journal of Henry III. by L'Estoile, we read the 
following : — " In the same way the institutors of our 
ceremonies have had no shame of the most ancient 
pieces of antiquity, for the god of gardens has been 
adored in so many parts of France. Witness Saint 
Foutin, of Varailles, in Provence, to whom are dedicated 
the privy parts of either sex in wax. The ceiling of the 
chapel is covered with them, and when the wind agitates 
them, it sometimes disturbs one's devotions in honour 
of the saint. I was greatly scandalized, when I passed 
through that place, to hear several men named Foutin ; 
the daughter of my hostess had a god-mother, a lady of 
the name of Foutine. When the Huguenots took Em- 
brun, they found among the relics of the principal 
church a Priapus, of three pieces in the ancient fashion, 
the top of which was worn away from being constantly 
washed with wine : the women made a Saint Vinaigre of 
it, to be applied to a very strange use. When the men 
of Orange (the Huguenots) ruined the temple of St. 
Eutropius, they found a similar piece of sculpture, but 
coarser, covered with a skin and hair ; it was publicly 
burnt in the square by the heretics, who were near being 
suffocated from the stench from it, through a miracle and 
punishment of the saint. There is another Saint Foutin 
in the town of Auxerre. Another in a town called 
Verdre, in Bourbonnais. There is another Saint Foutin 
in Bas Languedoc, in the diocese of Viviers, called Saint 
Foutin de Cines, and another at Posigny, to whom women 
have recourse when with child, or in order to have 

At Saintes, women and children of both sexes carried 
in a certain procession, at the end of a blessed branch, a 

The Maypole. 37 

loaf of bread, in the shape of a phallus. The name of 
this loaf is in harmony with its shape, which reveals its 
origin, and leaves no doubt as to the object it repre- 

At St. Jean d'Angely, at Corpus Christi, loaves of 
bread called ' fateaux,' and in the form of a phallus, were 
carried in procession. This custom was still practised 
when M. Maillard was sous-prefet of that town ; he had 
it suppressed. 

" They still show, at Antwerp," says Goropius, " a small 
statue, formerly provided with a phallus, which decency 
caused to be removed. This statue is placed over a door 
near the public prison." According to this author, 
Priapus had at Antwerp a very celebrated temple. 
Goropius even quotes an opinion which derives the name 
of the city of Antwerp from the Latin word verpus, 
which expresses what the phallus represents. 

In the tovm of Trani, not long ago, an old statue of 
wood was carried in procession, during the Carnival, 
which represented a complete Priapus in its ancient 
proportions, that is to say, that the feature which dis- 
tinguished the god was greatly out of proportion with 
the rest of the body of the idol ; it rose nearly as high 
as its chin. The inhabitants of the country named this 
figure " il santo membro." 

The raising of the May Pole is a custom of Phallic 
origin, and is typical of the fructifying powers of 

Among the simple and primitive races of men, the act 
of generation was considered as no more than one of 
the operations of nature contributing to the reproduction 
of the species, as in agriculture the sowing of seed for 

38 « The Falir 

the production of corn,* and was consequently looked 
upon as a solemn duty consecrated to the Deity ; as 
Payne Knight remarks, " it was considered as a solemn 
sacrament in honour of the Creator." 

In those early days, all the operations of nature were 
consecrated to some divinity from whom they were sup- 
posed to emanate ; thus the sowing of seed was presided 
over by Ceres. 

In Egypt, the act of generation was consecrated to 
Khem, in Assyria to Vul, in India to Siva ; in Greece, in 
the primitive pastoral age, to Pan, and in later times to 
Priapus, and in Italy to Mutinus. Among the Mexicans, 
the god of generation was named Triazoltenti. These 
gods became the representatives of the generative or 
fructifying powers in man and nature. 

" Hevia," writes General Forlong,t " is equivalent to 
Zoe life, from the Greek to live ; thus what is called 
' the fall,' ascribed to Eva, or Hevia the female, and 
Adam the male, becomes in reality the acts connected 
with generation, conception, and production, and the de- 
struction of virginity. — Adam 'fell' from listening to 
Eve, and she from the serpent tempting her, — details 
which merely assure us that we have procreative acts in 
all stories regarding Hawa (in Hindustani- Lust, Wind, 
Air-Juno) and Chavah or Eve, or as the Arabs call it, 
Hayyat, life or creation. Eating forbidden fruit was 
simply a figurative mode of expressing the performance of 
the act necessary for the perpetuation of the human 


The following curious passage from Cook^s First Voyage 

* In Greek (jivrevio means to plant seeds and to generate, 
f Rivers of Life , vol. i., p. 1 42. 

Custom of Pacific Islanders. 39 

will show the reverence with which the procreative act 
was looked upon by a primitive race in the islands of the 
Pacific Ocean ; it was considered a religious duty : — " On 
the 14th I directed that divine service should be per- 
formed at the fort : we were desirous that some of the 
principal Indians should be present, but when the hour 
came, most of them returned home. Mr. Banks, how- 
ever, crossed the river, and brought back Tubourai 
Tamaide and his wife Tonio, hoping that it would give 
occasion to some inquiries on their part, and some in- 
struction on ours : having seated them, he placed himself 
between them, and during the whole service they very 
attentively observed his behaviour, and very exactly imi- 
tated it ; standing, sitting, or kneeling, as they saw him 
do ; they were conscious that we were employed about 
something serious and important, as appeared by their 
calling to the Indians without the fort to be silent ; yet 
when the service was over, neither of them asked any 
questions, nor would they attend to any attempt that was 
made to explain what had been done, 

" Such were our matins ; our Indians thought fit to per- 
form vespers of a different kind. A young man, near six 
feet high, performed the rites of Venus with a little girl, 
about eleven or twelve years of age, before several of our 
people and a great number of the natives ; but, as ap- 
peared, in perfect conformity to the custom of the place. 
Among the spectators were several women of superior 
rank, particularly Oberea, who may properly be said to 
have assisted at the ceremony, for they gave instruction 
to the girl how to perform her part." * 

* Cook's First Voyage, Hawkesworth, ii., 128. 

40 The First Festival, 

This account of the procreative ceremony among the 
Otaheitans has been further described by Voltaire in his 
story, Les Oreilles du Comte de Chesterfield^ with addi- 
tional circumstances : — " The Princess Obeira, queen of 
the island of Otaheite, after having made us many pre- 
sents with a politeness worthy of a queen of England, 
was anxious to be present some morning at our English 
service. We celebrated it with as much ceremony as 
possible. She invited us to her's after dinner ; it was on 
the 14th of May, 1769. We found her surrounded by 
about a thousand persons of both sexes, ranged in a semi- 
circle, and in respectful silence. A very pretty young 
girl, slightly dressed, was lying on a raised bench, which 
served as an altar. The Queen Obeira ordered a hand- 
some young man of about twenty to go and sacrifice. 
He uttered a kind of prayer, and ascended the altar. 
The two sacrificers were half naked. The queen, with 
a majestic air, taught the young victim the most proper 
manner to consummate the sacrifice. All the Otaheitans 
were so attentive and so respectful, that none of our 
sailors dared to interrupt the ceremony by an indecent 
laugh. This is what I have seen, it is for you to draw 

" This sacred festival does not astonish me," said Dr. 
Goodman, " I feel persuaded that this was the first festival 
that men ever celebrated, and I do not see why we should 
not pray to God when we are going to procreate a 
being in his image, as we pray before we tal<:e our 
food, which serves to support our body ; working to give 
birth to a reasonable being, is a most noble and holy 
action : as thus the first Indians thought who revered 
the Lingam, the symbol of generation ; the ancient 

Phases of the Phallus. 41 

Egyptians who carried the phallus in procession ; the 
Greeks who erected temples to Priapus." 

Three phases in the representation of the phallus 
should be distinguished ; first, when it was the object of 
reverence and religious worship ; secondly, when it was 
used as a protecting power against evil influences of 
various kinds, and as a charm or amulet against envy or 
the evil eye ; there are numerous instances of its use for 
this purpose. It appears on the lintel of a postern gate 
at Alatri, in a baker's shop at Pompeii, on the wall at 
Fiesole, on the walls of Grotta Torre, on the walls of 
Todi ; on the doors of tombs at Palazzuolo, at Castel 
di Asro in Etruria. The phallus also frequently occurs on 
amulets of porcelain found in Egypt, and of bronze in 
Italy. These were usually worn round the neck. The 
bust of a woman was found at Pompeii with a necklace 
of eight phalli round her neck. In Dyer's Pompeii, 
p. 447, is figured a necklace of amulets with two phalli 
found on a female skeleton. Phalli were also frequently 
placed in vineyards and gardens to scare away thieves. 
Thirdly, when it was the result of mere licentiousness and 
dissolute morals. This phase we need not further notice, 
as it is completely outside our purpose. 

Another cause also contributed to the reverence and 
frequent representations of the phallus — the natural desire 
of women among all races, barbarous as well as civilized, 
to be the fruitful mother of children — especially as, 
among some people, women were esteemed according to 
the number of children they bore ; and as, among the 
Mohammedans of the present day, it is sinful not to 
contribute to the population ; as a symbol, therefore, of 
prolificacy, and as the bestower of offspring, the phallus 


42 Buddhist Temple at Pekin. 

became an object of reverence, and especial reverence 
among women. At Pompeii was fomid a gold ring, 
with the representation of a phallus on its bezel, supposed 
to have been worn by a barren woman. To propitiate 
the deity, and to obtain offspring, offerings of this symbol 
were made in Roman temples by women, and this custom 
has been retained in modern times at Isernia, near Naples. 
Stone offerings of phalli are also made at the present day 
in a Buddhist temple in Pekin, and for the same object 
Mohammedan women kiss with reverence the organ of 
generation of an idiot or saint. In India this worship has 
found its most extensive development. There young girls 
who are anxious for husbands, and married women who 
are desirous of progeny, are ardent worshippers of Siva, 
and his symbol, the lingam, which is frequently wreathed 
with flowers by his female worshippers, is exhibited in 
enormous proportions. 

In the 1 6th century St. Foutin in the south of France, 
St. Ters at Antwerp, and in the last century Saints 
Cosmo and Damiano at Isernia, near Naples, were wor- 
shipped for the same purpose by young girls and barren 
women. Wax phalli were offered to these saints, and 
placed on their altar. Sir William Hamilton and Mr. 
Payne Knight were led to investigate the origin of the 
ceremony. The results of their inquiries left no doubt 
that it was a remnant of the worship of Priapus, which 
appears to have lingered on this spot without interruption 
from pagan times. 

According to Henry Stephens, Priapus was worshipped 
at Bourg-Dun, near Bourges. Barren women performed 
a novena there ; and on each of the nine days they 
stretched themselves over the figure of the saint, which 

A Miraculous Draught. 43 

was placed horizontally. They then scraped, according 
to Dulaure, a certain part of Saint Guerlichon, which was 
as prominent as that of Priapus ; what they scraped oft, 
mixed with water, formed a miraculous draught. Henry 
Stephens adds, " I do not know if the saint is in similar 
credit at the present day, for those who have seen it say 
that for the last twelve years it has had that part worn 
away from continually scraping it." 

In France, in the last century, a belief in the efEcacy 
of some saints for a similar purpose was retained. The 
following extract is from a work published in 1797: 
— " At the further end of the Port of Brest, beyond the 
fortifications, there was a small chapel, and in this chapel 
was a statue honoured with the name of saint. If decency 
permitted me to describe Priapus with his attributes, I 
should depict that statue. Barren women, or those who 
feared to be so, went to this statue, and after having 
scraped what I dare not mention, and having drunk the 
powder infused in a glass of water from a fountain, they 
took their departure, with the hope of becoming fruit- 
ful." • 

According to M. Pastureaux, quoted by Dulaure, 
there was at Bourges, rue Chevriere, " a small statue 
placed in the wall of a house, the sexual organs of which 
were worn away from being continually scraped by 
women, who swallowed what they scraped off, in the hope 
of becoming fruitful ; this statue is in the country named 
the 'good Saint Greluchon' (le bon Saint Greluchon)." 

Sir Gardner Wilkinson records similar superstitious 
beliefs at the present day at Ekhmim, in Egypt. The 
superstitions of the natives here ascribed the same pro- 
perties to a stone in one of the sheikh's tombs, and like- 

44 Caves of Elephanta. 

wise to that of the temple of Pan, which the statues of 
the god of generation, the patron deity of Panoplis (Ekh- 
mim), were formerly believed to have possessed ; the 
modern women of Ekhmim, with similar hopes and equal 
credulity, offer their vows to these relics for a numerous 

Dr. Sinclair Coghill, now of Ventnor, who has travelled 
extensively in China and Japan, has kindly contributed 
the following, recording his experiences of similar super- 
stitious beliefs and practices in India and Japan at the 
present day : — 

" On my way out to the Far East, in 1861, I had an 
opportunity of visiting the great cave temple of Elephanta, 
near Bombay. In each of the monolithic chapels within 
the area of the main temple, I observed a gigantic stone 
phallus projecting from the centre of the floor. The em- 
blem was in some cases wreathed with flowers, while 
the floor was strewed with the faded chaplets of the 
fair devotees, some of whom at the time of my visit, 
fancying themselves unobserved, were invoking the subtle 
influence of the stony charm by rubbing their pudenda 
against its unsympathetic surface, while muttering their 
prayers for conjugal love, or for maternal joy, as the need 
might be. 

"In the course of two visits I paid to Japan, in 1864 
and in 1869, I was very much struck with the extent to 
which this ancient symbolic worship had survived through 
many phases of rational religion, and was still attracting 
numerous devotees to its shrines. I visited a large 
temple devoted to this cultus in a small island off Ka- 
raatura, the ancient and now deserted capital of Japan, 
in the Bay of Yokohama, some miles below the Foreign 

Religions in Japan. 45 

Settlements. The temple ' Tiiilbo,' as the Japimesc 
term such places of worship, covered a large extent of 
ground. The male symbol was the only object of venera- 
tion apparently ; in various sizes, some quite colossal, and 
more or less faithfully modelled from nature, it held the 
sole place of honour on the altars in the principal hall 
and subsidiary chapels of the temple. Before each the 
fair devotees might be seen fervently addressing their 
petitions, and laying upright on the altar, already thickly 
studded with similar oblations, a votive phallus, either of 
plain wrought cut wood from the surrounding grove, or 
of other more elaborately prepared materials. I also re- 
marked some of them handing to the presiding priests 
pledgets of the luxurious silk tissue paper of Japan, pre- 
viously applied to the genitals, which, with a muttered 
invocation, were burned in a large censer before the phal- 
lic idol. I was much struck with the earnestness with 
which, the whole of the proceedings were conducted, and 
with the strong hold which this most ancient religious 
cultus still evidently retained over the minds of a people 
otherwise remarkable for the mobility of their opinions, 
and manners. 

" The present religions most prevalent in Japan are the 
Sintoo and the Buddhist. The Sintoo, the more ancient 
religion of the people, consists of a multiple personifica- 
tion of the powers of nature, and of localities, mountains, 
streams, etc., closely resembling the classical mythology 
of ancient Greece and Rome. This ancient worship has 
been revived to a great extent lately by the old conser- 
vative party, who succeeded in restoring the line of the 
Mikados to actual sovereignty by the revolution of 1868, 
which overthrew the dynasty of the Tycoons. This re- 

46 Captain Burton, 

vival has been made greatly to the detriment of the 
Buddhist faith, which, more recently imported as a literary 
product from China, held principal sway in the large 
cities, and among the literati. The Phallic cultus still 
prevailing in the remoter country districts is probably a 
surviving relic of an earlier phase of the Sintoo religion 
in which the phallic element is still represented. In 
travelling in Japan, I have seen again and again on the 
Tokaido, or public road, a hedged recess, in which was 
implanted on its pedestal a gigantic stone phallus of most 
unequivocal character. The whole population of the 
country seem so habituated to the symbol as to regard it 
apart from its more material or grosser suggestion. I 
have seen a prodigious representation of the male organ, 
modelled in colour, borne erect by priests on a platform 
through the principal streets of Nagasaki, without at- 
tracting anything but respectful notice from the seething 

The following passage from Captain Burton's Bahome 
exhibits similar customs among a rude and barbarous 
people of the present day : — " Among all barbarians 
whose primal want is progeny, we observe a greater or 
less development of the Phallic worship. In Dahome it 
is uncomfortably prominent. Every street from Whydah 
to the capital is adorned with the symbol, and the old 
ones are not removed. The Dahoman Priapus is a clay 
figure, of any size between a giant and a pigmy, crouched 
upon the ground, as if contemplating its own attributes. 
The head is sometimes a wooden block rudely carved, 
more often dried mud, and the eyes and teeth are supplied 
by cowries. The tree of life is anointed with palm oil, 
which drops into a pot or shard placed below it, and the 

A Solemn Oath. 47 

would-be mother of children prays that the great god 
Legba will make her fertile." 

Mr. H. H. Johnston notes a similar worship in CongOo 
" On the Lower Congo, as far as Stanley Pool, phallic 
worship in various forms prevails. It is not associated 
with any rites that might be called particularly obscene ; 
and on the coast, where manners and morals are parti- 
cularly corrupt, the phallus cult is no longer met with. 
In the forests between Manyanga and Stanley Pool it is 
not rare to come upon a little rustic temple, made of 
palm-fronds and poles, within which male and female 
figures, nearly or quite life size, may be seen, with dis- 
proportionate genital organs, the figures being intended 
to represent the male and female principle. Around 
these carved and painted statues are many offerings of 
plates, knives and cloth, and frequently also the phallic 
symbol may be seen dangling from the rafters. There is 
not the slightest suspicion of obscenity in all this, and any 
one qualifying this worship of the generative power as 
obscene does so hastily and ignorantly. It is a solemn 
mystery to the Congo native, a force but dimly under- 
stood, and, like all mysterious natural manifestations, it is 
a power that must be propitiated and persuaded to his 

The reverence as well as worship paid to the phallus, 
in early and primitive days, had nothing in it which par- 
took of indecency ; all ideas connected with it were of a 
reverential and religious kind. When Abraham, as 
mentioned in Genesis, in asking his servant to take a 
solemn oath, makes him lay his hand on his parts of 
generation (in the common version "under his thigh"), 

* H. H. Johnston, The River Congo, p. 4O5. 

48 Civilizatioji and Purity, 

it was that he required, as a token of his sincerity, his 
placing his hand on the most revered part of his body ; 
as at the present day a man would place his hand on his 
heart in order to evince his sincerity. Jacob, when dying, 
makes his son Joseph perform the same act. A similar 
custom is still retained among the Arabs at the present 
day. An Arab, in taking a solemn oath, will place his 
hand on his virile member, in attestation of sincerity.* 

The indecent ideas attached to the representation of 
the phallus were, though it seems a paradox to say 
so, the result of a more advanced civilization verging 
towards its decline, as we have evidence at Rome and 
Pompeii. f 

" We must caretully distinguish," as M. Barre writes, 
" among these phallic representations, a religious side, and 
a purely licentious side. These two classes correspond 
with two diiferent epochs of civilization, with two different 
phases of the human mind. The generative power pre- 
sented itself first as worthy of the adoration of men ; it 
was symbolized in the organs in which it is centred ; and 
then no licentious idea was mingled with the worship of 
these sacred objects. If this spirit of purity became 
weaker as civilization became more developed, as luxury 
and vices increased, it still must have remained the peculiar 
attribute of some simple minds : and hence we must con- 
sider under this point of view all objects in which nudity 
is veiled, so to speak, under a religious motive. Let us 
look upon those coarse representations with the same eye 
with which the native population of Latium saw them, an 
ignorant and rude population, and consequently still pure 

* Memoires sur I'Egypie, paitie deuxieme, p. Ig6. 
f Secret JlTustum of Naples, London, I 87 I. 

Constant and Voltaire. 49 

and virtuous, even in the most polished and most depraved 
times of the Empire ; let us consider from this same point 
of view all those coarse statues of the god of gardens, 
those phalli and amulets ; and let us recall to our minds 
that, even at the present day, the simple peasants of some 
parts of Italy are not completely cured of such super- 

In this connection we may introduce an extremely just and 
apposite remark of Constant in his work on Roman Poly- 
theism : — " Indecent rites may be practised by a religious 
people with the greatest purity of heart. But when 
incredulity has gained a footing amongst these peoples, 
these rites become then the cause and pretext of the 
most revolting corruption." A similar remark has been 
made by Voltaire. Speaking of the worship of Priapus, 
he says : " Our ideas of propriety lead us to suppose that 
a ceremony which appears to us infamous could only be 
invented by licentiousness ; but it is impossible to believe 
that licentiousness and depravity of manners would ever 
have led among any people to the establishment of reli- 
gious ceremonies ; profligacy may have crept in in the 
lapse of time, but the original institution was always in- 
nocent and free from it ; the early agapes, in which boys 
and girls kissed one another modestly on the mouth, de- 
generated at last into secret meetings and licentiousness. 
It is, therefore, probable that this custom was first intro- 
duced in times of simplicity, that the first thought was to 
honour the Deity in the symbol of life which it has 
given us." In conclusion we may introduce the views of 
a recent French writer. Dr. Boudin, whose Essay on 
Phallic Worship is little known. 

Modern historians have been strangely deceived, in Dr. 

50 Dr. Bondings Conclusions. 

Boudin's opinion, in persisting in seeing in the Priapus 
of antiquity, and in the Lingam of India, only a symbol of 
generation. " Man does not adore sy?nbols, and almost all 
nations have adored Priapus ; thousands of virgins have 
sacrificed to Priapus and the Lingam the most precious 
thing they possessed, and such sacrifices are not surely 
offered to symbols. As well may we transform into syjiiboh 
the most obscure acts, of which the worship of the phallus 
is, in reality, but the religious consecration." And after 
citing numerous instances of the worship of Priapus and 
the reverence paid to the Phallus, he gives the following 
as his conclusions on the subject of that worship : — 

" In presence of the preceding facts, which attest one 
of the most universally extended cults, or religious w^or- 
ships, what can we think of the opinion which persists 
in seeing in the Priapus of antiquity and in the Lingam of 
India only a symbol and an outline of generation ?" 

Man never attached the least importance to the phallus 
issuing from the hand of the sculptor, a phallus assuredly 
as symbolic as a consecrated phallus could be. To be 
the object of worship, the phallus required a previous 
religious consecration, without which the Priapus and the 
Lingam were nothing but a fragment of stone, but a piece 
of wood — inutile lignum, as the Roman poet, Horace, says. 

"In religione," says lamblichus, "non potest fieri 
opus ullum alicujus mirabilis efficaci^, nisi adsit illic 
superiorum aliquis spectator operis et impletor.^^ 

After the consecration, the scene changed ; the wood, 
inutile lignu??i, became a god ; Deus inde, furum aviumque 
maxima formido. 

What has taken place ? Let us ask human nature, the 
philosophers, the Fathers of the Church. All answer 

The Phallus not a Symbol. 51 

with one accord, that an incarnation of the Deity has 
taken place in the wood or in the stone. 

This was the creed of antiquity ; this is what modern 
India still believes. In the opinion of St. John Chry- 
sostom statues are : \iQoi koX taifxoveg, stones and spirits of 
evil. In the opinion of St. Cyprian, the spirits are in the 
stone or under the stone : Hi ergo Impuri Spiritus sub 
statuis et imaginibus delitescunt. Minutius Felix ex- 
presses himself in somewhat similar terms. According to 
Tertullian, to make an idol was to make a body for a 
demon (De Idolatria). 

Assuredly there is nothing in these quotations which 
authorise the interpretation of the present day considering 
them as symbols. Let us also cite Arnobius, who, before 
his conversion, had been a fervent adorer of these gods, 
and ought to be an authority on these forms of belief: — 
" If I met," he says, " a stone anointed with oil (lapidem 
ex olivi unguine sordidatum — this is the consecration), I 
addressed it, I asked favours (affabar, beneficia poscebam) 
as if it had been inhabited by a power (tanquam inesset 
vis prsesens)." In another place the same author, after 
having accused his former co-religionists of adoring 
statues, puts in their mouth this very legitimate objec- 
tion : — " Error ; we adore neither the bronze, nor the 
gold, nor the silver ; but those whom a religious conse- 
cration (dedicatio sacra) renders the indwellers of the stone 
(efficit habitare simulacris)." It is also in allusion to the 
general belief in the power of the consecration of the 
stone, dedicatio sacra, that Lucian, always disposed to 
sneer at any religious idea which he meets, exclaims, 
" Every stone renders oracles {irdi XiBos xpwi^<eceT), provided 
it is anointed with holy oil." 

52 Consecration. 

" How," says Minutius Felix, " do they make a god ? 
It is melted, it is struck, it is sculptured, it is not yet a 
god (nondum est deus), it is soldered, it is manufactured, 
it is raised erect ; it is not yet a god (nondum est deus) ; 
lastly, it is adorned, it is consecrated, it is prayed to, it is 
now a god, when man has willed it, and has dedicated it 
(ornatur, consecratur, oratur, tunc postremo deus est, cum 
homo ilium voluit et dedicavit)." 

"In India," says Delafosse, "the lingam issuing from 
the hands of the workman is deemed an instrument 
without virtue ; it acquires it only by consecration — that 
is to say, when a Brahmin has blessed it, and has rendered 
incarnate in it the deity by religious ceremonies."* 

To sum up, the phallus, in the same manner as statues, 
plants, animals, objects of worship among nations, was 
only the outward covering, the receptacle, the vehicle of 
the deity which was supposed to be contained within it, 
a deity to which alone religious worship was paid. This 
outward covering, this receptacle, this vehicle, was varied 
in an infinity of modes with regard to its form, but it was 
neither a symbol nor an allegory.! 

The Dionysia (Aiovuo-ia) were celebrated in honour 
of Bacchus, Aidi/uo-os. The etymology of this word has 
been the subject of long discussions. The older opinion 
derived it from Zeue, genitive Atdg, Jupiter or God, and 

* Kssai Historlque sur V Inde. 

f On my writing to a learned friend to ask his opinion on this view, 
I received the following reply : — " The ancients worshipped the 
phallus — the yoni and the linga — because they worshipped nature powers 
in general. In that sense, no doubt, they were regarded as 'divine,* 
but it is hardly true that they regarded them ' as an incarnation of the 
deity.' " 

The Dionysia. ^-7^ 

from the name of the town of Nysa, where Bacchus was 
brought up. Some philologists versed in Indian lan- 
guages derive it from diEva, which means god or king 
(king of Nysa) ; and it has been remarked that the 
epithet of devanichi, king of the town of Nicha (city of 
the night) has been given to Siva, who is the same as 

These festivals were sometimes designated by the word 
opyLu, which was also applied -to the mysteries of the 
other gods ; they were also called (3aKxda. They were 
brought from Egypt into Greece by Melampus, the son of 
Amithaon, and the Athenians celebrated them with more 
pomp than the other Greeks. The principal archon 
(cTTcow/xoe) presided over them, and the priests who cele- 
brated the religious rites occupied the first places in the 
theatre, and in the public assemblies. Originally these 
festivals exhibited neither extravagance nor splendour; 
they were simply devoted to joy and pleasure within the 
houses. All public ceremonies were confined to a pro- 
cession, in which there appeared a vasefull of wine, and 
wreathed with vine leaves; a goat, a basket of figs, 
and the phalli. At a later period this procession was 
celebrated with greater pomp ; the number of priests of 
Bacchus increased. Those who took part in the proces- 
sion were suitably dressed, and sought by their gestures 
to represent some of the customs which Faith attributed 
to the god of wine. They dressed themselves in fawn 
skins. They wore on their head a mitre, and they carried 
in their hand a thyrsus, a tympanum or • a flute. Their 
heads were wreathed with ivy, vine leaves, and pine 
branches. Some imitated the dress and fantastic postures 
of Silenus, of Pan, and the Satyrs ; they covered their legs 

54 Votaries of Bacchus. 

with goat skins, and carried the horns of animals ; they 
rode on asses, and dragged after them goats intended to 
be sacrificed. In the town this frenzied crowd was fol- 
lowed by priests carrying sacred vases, the first of which 
was filled with water ; then followed young girls selected 
from the most distinguished families, and called Cane- 
phori {Kavr)4>6poi), because they bore small baskets of 
gold full of all sorts of fruits, of cakes, and of salt ; but 
the principal object among these, according to St. Croix, 
was the phallus, made of the wood of a fig-tree. (In the 
comedy of the Acharnians, by Aristophanes, one of the 
characters in the play says, — " Come forward a little, 
Canephoros, and you, Xanthias, slave, place the phallus 

After these came the periphallia (7r£pi(/)aXX/a), a troop 
of men who carried long poles with phalli hung at the 
end of them : they were crowned with violets and ivy, 
and as they walked they repeated obscene songs called 
4>aXKiKa ^ajxara. Thcse men were called phallophori 
(4>a.\\o(ji6poi) ; these must not be confounded with the 
ithyphalli (l6vcl>a\\oi), who, in an indecent dress, and 
sometimes in a woman's dress, their head covered with 
garlands, their hands full of flowers, and pretending to be 
drunk, wore at their waistband monstrous phalli made of 
wood or leather : among the ithyphalli, must also be 
counted those who assumed the costume of Pan, or of the 
Satyrs. There were other persons, called licnophori 
{\iKv6(popoi), who had the care of the mystic winnowing- 
fan, an emblem the presence of which was considered 
as indispensable in these kinds of festivals. It was on 
account of this symbol that the epithet licnite (Xikvittic) 
was given to Bacchus. 

Invocations. ^^ 

Outside the town, the more respectable persons, the 
matrons and modest virgins, separated themselves from 
the procession. But the people, the countless multitude 
of Sileni, of Satyrs, and of nymph bacchantes, spread 
themselves over the open spaces and the valleys, stopped 
in solitary places to get up dances or to celebrate some 
festival, making the rocks re-echo with the sound of 
drums and flutes, and more especially with cries constantly 
repeated, by which they invoked the god : " Evohe 
Sabcee ! Evohe Bacche ! O lacche ! lo Bacche 1" Ei/oi 

2a/3oT, Eio7 Ba/^xf ^ "laK^e, 'iw fiaKx^. The firSt of thcSe 

words recalls the words with which Jupiter encouraged 
Bacchus when, in the war of the giants, the latter 
defended the throne of his father : " d vlk, tZ vlk Bqacxe " 
called out the master of the gods : they added also 

vr]Q arrrjc ', arrrjQ vrjc. 

The description we have given was chiefly applied to 
the greater Dionysia (jxeydXa)^ or to the new Dionysia 
(veujTepa) ', there were six other festivals of this name, 
the ceremonies of which must have borne some resem- 
blance to that already described. There were, in the 
first place, the ancient Dionysia (apxatoVcpa), which were 
celebrated at Limnse, and in which appeared fourteen 
priestesses called Gerjerse (Tepaipai, venerable) who, be- 
fore entering on their duties, swore that they were pure 
and chaste. There were the lesser Dionysia (/xt^pa), 
which were celebrated in the autumn, and in the 
country ; the Brauronia (Bpaupw^ta) of Brauron, a village 
of Attica ; the Nyctelia (^wKrtjXia), the mysteries of 
which it was forbidden to reveal ; the Theoina {deoiva) ; 
the Lenean (Xrjmla), festivals of the wine-press {\r}v6e) ; 
the Omophagia (j>/i,o^ayia) in honour of Bacchus car- 

56 The Age of Festivals. 

nivorous (oifiocfidyos), to whom formerly human victims 
were offered, and whose priests ate raw meat ; the 
Arcadian ('ApKaot/ca), which were celebrated in Arcadia 
by dramatic contests ; and lastly the Trieterica {rpieTtjpKu), 
which were celebrated every three years in memory of the 
period during which Bacchus made his expedition in 

The Bacchic mysteries and orgies are said to have been 
introduced from Southern Italy into Etruria, and from 
thence to Rome. Originally they were only celebrated 
by women, but afterwards men were admitted, and their 
presence led to the greatest disorders. In these festivals 
the phallus played a prominent part, and was publicly ex- 
hibited. At Lavinium the festival lasted a month, during 
which time a phallus, remarkable for its proportions, was 
carried each day through the streets. The coarsest lan- 
guage was heard on all sides ; a matron of one of the 
most considerable families in the town placed a wreath 
on this obscene image, 

Pacula Annia, pretending to act under the inspira- 
tion of Bacchus, ordered that the Bacchanalia should be 
held during five days in every month. It was from the 
time that these orgies were carried on after this new 
plan that, according to the statement of an eye-witness 
(Liv, xxxix. 13), licentiousness and crimes of every descrip- 
tion were committed. 

This was carried to such an excess that the Senate 
in 186 B.C. issued a decree to suppress and prohibit 
these festivals ; it was ordered that no Bacchanalia 
should be held in Rome or in Italy. 

Our task is now ended. We have traced the spon- 
taneous and independent development in many countries 

Conclusion, ^y 

of the worship, the reverence paid by man to the gene- 
rative power, that reproductive force which pervades 
all nature. To the primitive man it was the most 
mysterious of all manifestations. The visible physical 
powers of nature — the sun, the sky, the storm — natu- 
rally claimed his reverence, but to him the generative 
power was the most mysterious of all powers. In the 
vegetable world, the live seed placed in the ground, 
and hence germinating, sprouting up, and becoming a 
beautiful and umbrageous tree, was a mystery. In the 
animal world, as the cause of all life, by which all beings 
came into existence, this power was a mystery. In the view 
of primitive man generation was the action of the Deity 
itself. It was the mode in which He brought all things 
into existence, the sun, the moon, the stars, the world, 
man were generated by Him. To the productive power 
man was deeply indebted, for to it he owed the harvests 
and the flocks which supported his life ; hence it naturally 
became an object of reverence and worship. 

Primitive man wants some object to worship, for an 
abstract idea is beyond his comprehension, hence a 
visible representation of the generative Deity was made, 
with the organs contributing to generation most promi- 
nent, and hence the organ itself became a symbol of the 

As this power was visible through all nature and in 
all countries, similar ideas were suggested to man, and 
reverential worship to it became wide-spread among many 
nations and races. 

58 The Evil Eye. 


The belief in the Evil Eye is one of the most widely- 
extended of superstitions ; it crops out in the remotest 
corners of the globe. It is found among the intellectual 
Greeks and the cultivated Romans of the Augustan age as 
among the rudest savages. 

If the universality of a belief were an argument for its 
truth, the doctrine which asserts the power of the Evil 
Eye would be above all controversy. Transmitted by 
uncounted generations, perhaps, to all the nationalities of 
the globe, the theory of fascination, which lies at the basis 
of all witchcraft, holds a place among the very first ideas 
formulated by mankind. 

It takes its origin from that common but unamiable 
feeling in human nature, when an invidious glance or look 
of envy is cast on the happier lot or on the superior 
possessions of others. To avert the supposed effects of 
this glance of envy, this Evil Eye, recourse is had to the 
superstitious practice of using some attractive object or 
talisman to turn aside the baneful dart of the Evil Eye. 

"The dreaded invidia" as C. O. Mliller writes, 
" according to the belief of antiquity, was with so much 
the greater certainty warded off the more repulsive, nay, 
disgusting, the object worn for that purpose; and the 
numberless Phallic images, although originally symbols of 
life-creating nature, had afterwards, however, only this 
meaning and aim."* 

* Ancient Art^ page 627. 

The Evil Eye. 59 

A like stage of mental progress will lead to the mani- 
festation of similar beliefs, of superstitions almost identically 
the same. The mental stage being low, the ideas and 
beliefs emanating from it will necessarily be rude and 
coarse. Similar counter-agents also occur to ward off 
the effects of a glance of envy from an evil eye. The 
methods adopted for obviating its effects are of course 
merely the offspring of fear acting on ignorance. 

Many proofs may be adduced of the existence of this 
belief, and of similar means to avert the effects of the 
Evil Eye, not only among the ancient Greeks and Romans, 
but also throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, and America 
at the present day. 

It is wide spread all over the world, from China to 
Peru. The Greek of the present day entertains the 
same horror of the kako-mats as his ancestors did of the 
^(TKuvos o<^(9aX/ioj, and the mal occhio of modern Italy is the 
traditional fasdnatio of the Romans. The inhabitants of 
Malabar and the Hindoos, like the Turks and Arabians, 
apologise for the possession of jewels with which they deco- 
rate their children on the plea that they are intended to 
draw aside the Evil Eye ; the Mahometans suspend objects 
from the ceilings of their apartments for the same purpose, 
and the object of the Singalese in placing those whitened 
chatties on their gables is to divert the mysterious 
influence from their dwellings. Amongst the Tamils at 
Jafferabad the same belief prevails as amongst the Irish 
and Scotch, that their cattle are liable to injury from the 
blight of an evil eye, thus recalling the expression of 
Virgil's shepherd, "Nescio quis teneros oculus mihi 
fascinat agnos." 

Whole populations have been said to be endowed with 

6o The Evil Eye. 

the power of the Evil Eye : among the ancients the 
Telchines, the Triballi, the Thebans, the Illyrians, and 
all the Thracian women. Among the moderns it is attri- 
buted by the Christians to the Turks ; to the Christians, 
whether Catholics, Greeks, or Armenians, by the Turks ; 
to the Sunnites by the Schiites, and to the Shiites by the 
Sunnites. In the mouth of the orthodox "Evil Eye" 
is a term of abuse against infidels, possessed as such by 
unclean spirits. Christian and Moslem agree to endow with 
it the Gipsies and the Jews, and sometimes the Hindoos. 

De Farra narrates that at Marcati there are such 
sorcerers that they eat the inside of anybody only by 
fixing their eyes upon him. In the country of Sennaar 
and Fassold they have rivals not less powerful, who by a 
mere look of their evil eye (a'm el hafrid) stop the blood 
in the heart and the arteries of their enemy, desecrate his 
entrails, unsettle his intellect. The Sardinians have a 
saying amongst themselves : " Deo si guardi d^occhio di 
Utterato'^ (May the Lord preserve you from being looked 
by a man of letters), for the ailments they inflict are 
much worse than those inflicted by other people. 

The Romans attributed the Evil Eye to the late 
Pius IX. An Italian countess was turned out of Rome, 
as she was seen making the sign against the Evil Eye 
when the Pope was giving his blessing. An amusing 
story is also told of the late Pope, when saying prayers at 
the audience at the Vatican ; on coming to the passage in 
the Lord's Prayer, " Lead us not into temptation," he 
looked over towards a very ugly old lady, upon which 
the lady boldly repeated aloud, " Deliver us from the 
Evil Eye" (Libera nos a ?nalo-occ/jio). 

Mr. Barham Zincke tells us that " among the Egyptians 

The Evil Eye. 6i 

of the present day there is an universal belief in the noticing 
of the Evil Eye. If any one has looked upon an object 
with envious and covetous feelings evil will ensue ; not, 
however — and this is the heart and peculiarity of the 
superstition — to the coveted or envied object. A mother 
in easy circumstances will keep her child in shabby clothes 
and begrimed with dirt in order that those who see it 
may not think it a beautiful object, and so cast an anxious 
or covetous eye upon it. Some conspicuous object is 
placed among the caparisons of a beautiful horse or 
camel, that the eye of the passer-by may be attracted to 
it, and so withdrawn from the horse or camel. The 
entire dress of a Nubian young lady consists of a fringe 
of shredded leather, two or three inches deep, worn round 
the loins. On the upper ridge of this fringe two or 
three bunches of small white cowries are fastened. The 
traveller might at first, and probably generally does, 
suppose that this is merely a piece of coquetry, inspired 
by the desire to attract attention. The truth is quite 
the reverse. The white shells against the ebon skin are, 
it is true, intended to attract attention — not at all, how- 
ever, in the way of coquetry, but from the opposite wish, 
that the eye of the passer-by may be attracted to the 
shells, and thus the wearer may herself escape the effects 
of the evil-coveting eye." 

Lord Lytton writes : — " This superstition still flourishes 
in Magna Graecia with scarcely diminished vigour. At 
Naples the superstition works well for the jewellers — so 
many charms and talismans do they sell for the ominous 
fascination of the mal occhio ! In Pompeii the talismans 
were equally numerous, but not always of so elegant a 
shape nor of so decorous a character. But, generally 

62 The Evil Eye, 

speaking, a coral ornament was, as it is now, among the 
favourite averters of this evil influence. The Thebans 
about Pontus were supposed to have an hereditary claim 
to this charming attribute, and could even kill grown-up 
men with a glance. As for Africa, where the belief also 
still exists, certain families could not only destroy children, 
but wither up trees ; but they did not with curses, but 
praises. The malus oculus was not always different from 
the eyes of other people. But persons, especially of the 
fairer sex, with double pupils to the organ, were above 
all to be shunned and dreaded. The Illyrians were said 
to possess this fatal deformity. In all countries, even in 
the North, the eye has ever been held the chief seat of 
fascination; but nowadays ladies with a single pupil 
manage the work of destruction pretty easily. So much 
do we improve upon our forefathers !" 

Mr. Bonwick tells us " that the red hand, stamped on 
walls to this day by the Arabs in Palestine, as a charm 
against the Evil Eye, is recognised not only in India and 
America but also in Australia and Tasmania." 

One of the objects most generally used to avert the 
Evil Eye in Egypt, Greece, and Italy was the repre- 
sentation of the phallus. In Egypt in ancient time it 
was extensively used. Numbers of examples have been 
found, particularly at Bubastis, belonging to the twenty- 
second dynasty, about 600 b.c. Some represent beings 
with a phallus of abnormal proportions ; others are re- 
markable for their gross indecency. One of the earliest 
of known examples of representations of the phallus as 
an amulet against the evil is on the lintel of a gateway on 
the ancient walls of Alatri : three phalli are represented 
joined together so as to form a cross. The phallus occurs 

The Evil Eye. 6^ 

also for the same purpose on the wall at Fiesoli, on the 
walls of Grotta Torre, of Todi, on the doors of tombs at 
Palazzuolo, at Castel di Asro in Etruria. For a similar 
reason the phallus was placed over the doors of Greek 
and Roman houses, and in the inside of the houses, to 
divert the thoughts of passers-by, so that they might not 
look with an eye of envy on the house. In the principle 
street of Pompeii it occurs over the door of a house, 
and also in a baker's shop. Bronze representations, of the 
phallus, either erect or quiescent, are frequently found in 
the South of Italy. They are also often found, among 
other objects, in the necklaces of ladies. 


Abichegam, description of the, 26 
Abniliam, Phallic oath exacted by, 47 
Abyssiuiaus, the, worshippers of the 

Phallus, 24 
Acharnians, the, quotation from, 30, 


Adam, 38 

Africa, the Evil Eye iu, 62 

Agui, 14 

Ahankara, 14 

Alatri, Phallic talisman at, 62 

Amen, Phallic offerini^'S to, 23 

America, Central, religious creeds of, 

20, 21, 32 
America, North, Phallic votaries in, 


Ammon Ithyphallic, 13 
Aiiatu, 16 

Aukh, or Tau, the, 22 
Antwerp, Temple of Priapus at, 37 
Anu, 16 

Ard-hamX risd, 15 
Ashtar, or Ashter, 17 
Ashfcir-Chemosh, meaning of, 17 
Assyrians, belief of the, 1 7 
Asiarte, 17 

Athens, the worship of Priapus in- 
troduced into, 18 
St. Augustine on sexual rites, 17 
Australia, Phallic worship in, 34 

Baal-Peoe, Phallic representation of, 

Babylon, Phallic worship prevalent 

at, 22 
Babylonian mythology, the, 1 6 
Bacchus or Osiris, festival of, 23 ; 

worship of, 39 
Bacchic Festivals, account of the 

various, 55; licentious observance 

of, 56 
Barley Corn, the, 31 
Bas Languedoc, St. Foutin in, 36 
Bel, 17 

Benares, Linga worship at, 26, 27 
Bengal, Linga temples in, 26, 27 
Bhava, 15 
Bhavani, 15 
Borneo, Phallic figures in, 34 

Bourbourg, Do, on American Phallic 

worship, 33 
Brahma, 14, 15 
Braurouia, the, 55 
Bubastis, Phallic talismans at, 62 
Buddhist religion in Japan, the, 45 

Canephoei, the, 30, 54 

Castel di Asro, Phallic talismans at, 63 

Ceres, 38 

Chalons, Council of, foi-bids enchant- 
ments before the fascinum, 35 

Chili, Phallic worship in, 32, 33 

China, religious belief of, 16 

Concha Veneris, the, 31 

Congo, the. Phallic worship on, 47 

Cook's First Tojjar/e. quoted, 3S 

Copan, monolithic pillars at, 33 

Coromandel Coast, Phallic symbols 
found on the, 26 

Cosmo and Damiano SS. worshipped 
by barren women, 42 

Cowries, a talisman against the Evil 
Eye, 61 

Cronos, 17 

Crux Ansata, the, 62 

Cuzco, monolith at, 33 

Cybele, 31 

Cyllene, ithyphallic statues of Mer- 
cury at, 19 

Dahome, Phallic worship in, 46 
Delta, the, 22, 31 
Demiurgus, the, 13 
Deva-Nichi, meaning of, 53 
Diodorus Siculus on the Bacchic rites, 

Diouysos, derivation of, 52, 53 
Dionysiaca, the, 30, 52, 55 
Dyaus, 15 

Earth, marriage of the, 11, 12, 17 

Eduth, the, 24 

Egypt, Phallic worship iu, 22, 23 ; 

(Modern) the Evil Eye in, 61 
Ekhmim, Phallic worship at, 43 
Elephanta, Phallic symbols at, 26; 

worship paid to a Phallus at, 44 
Eleusis, mysteries of. Phallic, 30 



EUora, Phallic symbols at, 16 
Embrun, Priapus found at, 36 
Enchantments before the fascinum in 

Modern Europe, 35 
Europe (Modern), Phallic worship in, 

Eutropius St., Priapus found in the 
Church of, 36 

Eva or Hevia, 38 

Evil Eye, the, a widely-spread super- 
stition, 58; origin of, 58,- means taken 
to avert, 58 ; belief in prevalent at 
the present day, 59 ; whole popula- 
tions said to jJossess the power of, 
60 ; a term of abuse, 60 ; attributed to 
Pius IX., 60 ; believed in by Modern 
Egyptians, 61; precautions taken 
against in Nubia, 61 ; a belief in 
still prevalent in Magna Grajcia, 
61 ; coral ornaments the usual 
talisman against, 62 ; in Africa, 
62; the Red Hand a universal 
talisman against, 62 

Famagostad, the first male, 20 

Fascinum, the, 35 

Piesoli, Phallic talisman at, 63 

Fig, the, 31 

Foutin, St., worshipped by barren 

women, 42 
Foutin and Pontine used as names, 36 
Fricco, the German Priapus, 32 

Ganges, the, Linga worship pre- 
valent throughout the tract of, 26 

Generation, considered by primitive 
man as the action of the Deity, 57 

Generative worship in the Pacific 
Islands, 39, 40 

Genesis, the Book of, cited, 1 2 

Germany, worship of Priapus in, 34 

Ghe, 17 

Greece, character of Priapus in, 1 8 

Greeks and Romans, religious ideas 
of, 17 

Grotta Torre, Phallic talismans at, 6^ 

St. Gucrlichon, devotions to, 43 

Hawa, 38 

Hayti, Phallic worship in, 32, 33 

Henry III., quotation from the diary 

of, 36 
Hurmae or Priapi, placed at the meet- 
ing of roads, 18 
ilerincs, Priapus reprcsontod as a, 1 8 
Herodotus, description of an Egyptian 
festival by, 22 ; on Bacchic rites, 29 

Hieropolis, enormous Phallus at, 24 

Hindoos, the, sex worshippers, 24 

History of the Incas, quoted, 33 

Honduras, idol at, 33 

Horl anes, the Spanish Priapus, 32 

Horus Ithyphallic, 13 

Hyperion, 17 

lAMBLiCHtra, quoted, 31, 50 

lapetus, 17 

Illyrians, said to have the Evil Eye, 
60, 62 

Incarnation of the Deity in an image 
efl'ected by consecration, 51 

India, Phallic worship in, 22; reli- 
gious habits in, 22 

Invidia, the, 58 

Isiij, the receptive deity, 13; repre- 
sented by the Delta, 22 

Ithyphallic representations, 24 

Ithyphalli, the, 29, 54 

Jacob, Phallic oath exacted by, 48 
Jangamas, the, devotees of the linga, 

Japan, PhalHp worship in, 45, 46 
Japanese Creed, the, 19, 44, 45 
Jews, the, worshippers of the Phallus, 

Juno, 17 
Jupiter, 17, 30 

KAMATrEA, Phallic temple at, 44 
Khem, the abstract idea of father, 1 2 ; 
Ithyphallic, 13 j presided over gene- 
ration, 38 
Kisar, 16 
Kiu-Siu, the island of, in the Japanese 

mythology, 20 
Kritya Tatwa, the, quotation fi-om, 14 
Kteis, the, 21, 31, 32; worshipped iu 
Greece and Rome, 29 

Lahina and Lahama, 16 

Lavinium, Phallic festival at, 31, 56 

Legba, the Dahoman Priapus, 47 

Leusea, the, 55 

Liber, the sexual organ of man conse- 
crated in the temple of, 17 

Liberia, the sexual organ of woman 
consecrated in the temple of, 17 

Licnite, an epithet of Bacchus, 54 

Licnophori, the, 54 

Jiinga, the, 21, 24, 50; a chrysoberyl 
linga described, 2S ; the emblem of 
Siva, 25; material of, 27; worn 
round the neck, 27 ; not a mere 
symbol, 50; the consecration of, 52 



Linga worship, extent of in India, 

26 ; description of, 28 
Lingayets, 27 
Lingawants, 27 
Lucian on the consecration of images, 


Mani, the, name of the linga, 28 
Mans, the Church of, on enchantments 

before the fascinum, 35 
Marianne Islands, the, a Phallic pro- 
cession in, 34 
Maut, the abstract idea of mother, 12 
Maypole, the, of Phallic origin, 37 
Melampus, brought the Bacchic rites 

into Greece, 29, 53 
Mendis, the worship of Isis and Osiris 

at, 13 
Mercury, ithyphallic statues of, 19 
Mexicans, Phallic worship among the, 

22, 32 
Minutius Felix on the consecration 

of images, 51, 52 
Mithras, 20 
Moabite Stone, the, 17 
Mohammedan Conquest, the, its effects 

on Linga worship, 27 
Mutinus, 31, 38 ; the Roman Priapus, 

Mylitta, represented the productive 
principle of nature in the Assyrian 
mythology, 17 

Nagasaki, Phallic procession in, 46 
Naples, the Evil Eye in, 61 
Nebrissa or Lebrixa, Phallic rites at, 32 
Nepaul, worship of Siva in, 29 
New Zealand, Phallic figures in, 34 
Nubia, precautions taken against the 

Evil Eye in, 61 
Nyctelia, the, 55 

Omophagia, the, $5 
Orgies, the, account of, 53, 54, 55 ; 
introduced into Eome from Etruria, 

Osiris, the generating cause, 1 3 
Ouranos, 17 

Pacific Islands, the, religious belief 

of, 20 
Pacula Annia, 56 

Palazzuolo, Phallic talisman at, 63 
Pamelia, the Egyptian, 23 
Pan, presided over generation, 38 
Pauuco, Phallic symbols at, 33 
Pap«, New Zealand deity, 20 

Parvati, 15, 16 

Pekin, offerings of Phalli at, 42 

Persians, the, worshipped the Phallus, 


Peru, Phallic worship in, 32, 33 

Pius IX., said to possess the Evil Eye, 

Phallus, the, the exponent of creative 
power, 21 ; an enormous gilt phallus, 
23 J esoteric meaning of on tombs, 
23 J at Hieropolis, 24 ; manufac- 
tured by Jews, 24 ; worshipped in 
Greece and at Rome, 29 ; a symbol 
in the Dionysiac processions, 30; 
meaning of revealed in the mys- 
teries, 30 ; specimen found at Troy, 
30 ; carried in the Roman festival of 
Venus, 30 ; worshipped in the spring, 
31 ; description of a specimen in 
the possession of Dr. Ramsay, 34; 
as an amulet, 41 ; the bestower of . 
offspring, 41 ; found at Pompeii, 42; 
offerings of made by barren women, 
42 J waxen Phalli offered to saints, 
42 • indecent ideas attached to the 
result of advanced civilisation, 48 ; 
a talisman against the Evil Eye, 62 

Phallophori, the, 29, 54 

Phallic discoveries in America, 34 

Phallic figures in New Zealand and 
Borneo, 34; at Antwerp, 37; at 
Alatri, 62 ; at Pompeii, 63 ; used 
for warding off the Evil Eye, 58, 63 

Phallic oaths, exacted by Abraham, 
47 ; and by Jacob, 48 ; common at 
the present day among the Arabs, 

Phallic procession at the Marianne 
Islands, 34; at Saintes, St. Jean 
d'Angely, and Trani, 37 ; at Naga- 
saki, 46 

Phallic Worship, antiquity of, 10; 
various phases of, 41 ; in Spain, 32 ; 
in Slavonia, 34; in the Pacific 
Islands, 39 ; in Japan, 45 ; in Da- 
home, 46 ; on the Congo, 47 ; Vol- 
taire quoted on, 49; progress of, 
49 ; reason of, 57 

Phoenician Mythology, the, 17 

Philse, worship of Isis and Osiris at, 


Phrygia, 31 

Plato, quotation from, 1 2 

Plutarch, on the Egyptian belief, 13; 

on the Dionysiaca, 29 
Pompeii, paintings at, 18; talismans 

against the Evil Eye in, 61, 6t, 



Posigny, St. Foutin of, 36 
Prakriti, the female principle, 14 
Priapus, 3 1 ; the character of, 18; 
offerings to, 19; representation of, 
1 9 ; worshipped in Germany, 3*j 34 ; 
Mexican, description of a, 32; pre- 
sided over generation, 38 ; wor- 
shipped at Bourg-Dun, 42 ; at 
Bourges, description of a, 43 ; the 
Dahoman, 46 ; not a mere symbol, 
50 ; required consecration, 50 ; a 
" receptacle" of the Deity, 52 
Pripe-Gala, the Slavonian Priapus, 

34, 35 
Ptah Ithyphallic, 13 
Purusha, the generative principle, 14 

Rangi, a New Zealand deity, 20 

lied Hand, the, a universal talisman 
against the Evil Eye, 62 

Rig Veda, the, 15 

Rome, Phallic worship at, 29 ; fes- 
tival in honour of Venus at, 30 

Sacerdotal Judgments on Crimes, 

quotation from, 35 
Saiva Parana, the, quotation from, 


Sakti, the, 14; the female creative 
capacity, 15 

Sakti Parvati, 15 

Salsette, Phallic symbols found in, 26 

Sama Veda, the, quotation from, 15 

8ar and Sarrat, 17 

Sardinians, the, a proverb of, 60 

Senaar, the Evil Eye in, 60 

Senatus Consultum De Bacchana- 
libus, the, 56 

" Seven Pagodas," Phallic symbols 
found at, 26 

Sex Worship, antiquity of, 10 

Sliala, 17 

Shamas, the Assyrian sun-god, 17 

Shu- King, the, 16 

Sintoo religion, the, 19, 45, 46 

Sistrura, the, 22 

Siva, 14, 15 J the lingaaud yoni com- 
bined a symbol of, 25 ; the devotees 
of inscribe a linga on their foi-e- 
heads, 26; worship of everywhere 
Phallic, 26, 27; presided over gene- 
ration, 38; young girls and married 
women votaries of, 42 

Slavonia, Phallic worship in, 34 

Si)muath, idol of, 27 

Spain, Phallic worship in, 32 

Surya, 14 

Syria, representation of Ba;il-Peor in, 


Taenhannu, Phallic loaves, 23 
Tahitians, the, belief of, 20 
Taly, the, usually a Linga, 26 
Tanjore, Phallic symbols at, 26 
Tasmania, Phallic worship in, 34 
Telchines, the, said to have the Evil 

Eye, 60 
Tenessee, Phallic images discovered 

i°. 34 
Ters, St., worshipped by barren 

women, 42 
Tertullian, on the Mysteries of Elcusis, 

30 : De Idolatria, 57 
Thebans, the, said to have the Evil 

Eye, 60, 62 
Theoina, the, 55 
Thesmophoria, the, 32 
Tibet, curious prayer used in, 28 
" Timbo," Japanese term for a Phallic 

temple, 45 
Tinas, the, name of the Phallus in the 

Pacific Islands, 34 
TIascala, Phallic symbols at, 33 
Todi, Phallic talismans at, 62 
Tours, Church of, on enchantments 

before the fascinum, 35 
Triads, the Egyptian, 14 
Triazoltenti, the Mexican god of 

generation, 38 
Triballi, the, said to have the Evil 

Eye, 60 
Trieterica, the, 56 
Tutinus, 31 

UpsALA, temple of Fricco at, 32 

Vaeailles, St. Foutin of, 36 

Venus, Festival of, 30 

Verdre, St. Foutin of, 36 

Virgil, quotation from on the worship 

of Priapus, 19 
Viswesvvara, the " Lord of all,'' a 

Linga, 27 
Vul, lord of fecundity, 17, 38 
Vulva, the, 31 

Whydah, Phallic symbols in, 46 

Yoni, the, 21, 25, 52 
Yucatan, Phallus at, 32 





15, York Street, Covent Garden, 

London, Janvary, 1886. 

Nearly ready. 

Sultan Stork, 

And other Stories, Sketches and Ballads. 



Noio First Collected. 

None of these pieces are included in the two recently published 
volumes issued by Messrs. Smith, Elder, and Co. 

With an Appendix containing the Bibliogi-aphy of Thackee.VY 
{first published in 1880), in a revised and enlarged form. 




1. SULTAN STORK : being the One Thousand and Second Night. 

By Major G. O'. G. GAHA(iAN. [1S42.] 
•2. LITTLE SPITZ. A Lenten Anecdote. [1S41.] 

3. DICKENS IN FRANCE. An Account of a French dramatic version of 

" Nicholas Nickleby," performed at a Paris tlieatre. [1842.] 

4. THE PARTIE FINE. [Us44.] 

5. ARABELLA; or, The Moral of the Partie Fine. By Lancelot 

Wagstaff, Esq. [1S44.] 



11 SATIRICAL VERSES descriptive of (1) Louis Philippe; (2) Mr. Bra- 
ham; (3) N. M. Rothschild, Esq. ; (4) A. Bunn; (5) Sir Peier 
Laurie (Petras Laureus). [1833.] 

12. LOVE IN FETTERS. A Tottenham Court Road Ditty. [1833.] 

13. "DADDY, I'M HUNGRY." Scene in an Irish Coaclimaker's Family. 

' [1S48.] 

THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THACKERAY. A Bibliographical List, arranged 
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With an Introduction by John Payne, Translator of " The 
Poems of Master Francis Villon, of Paris," "The Book of the 
Thousand Nights and One Night," etc. 

One vol., crown 8ro., 400 pafjas. Price 6s. 

A Regular Pickle : 

How He Sowed his IVild Oats. 



" Mr. Nesfield's name as an author is established on such a pleasantly sound 
foundation that it is a recognised fact that, in taking up a book written by 
him, the reader is in for a delightful half-hour, during which his risible and 
humorous faculties will be pleasantly stimulated. The history of young 
Archibald Highton Tregauntly, whose fortunes we follow from the cradle to 
when experience is just beginning to teach him a few wholesome lessons, is as 
smart and brisk as it is possible to be." — Whitehall Review. 

"It will be matter for regret if the brisk and lively style of Mr. Nesfield, 
who at times reminds us of Lever, should blind people to the downright 
wickedness of such a perverted career as is here described." — Daily C/iromcle. 


18 MR. redway's publications. 

Fourth Edition. With Engraved Frontispiece, In crotvn 8vo., 5. 

Cosmo de' Medici: 

J/i Historical Tragedy. And ether Poems. 



Author of " Orion." 

" Tliis tragedy is the work of a poet and not of a playwright. Many of the 
scenes abound in vigour and tragic intensity. If the structure of the drama 
challenges comparison with the masterpieces of the Elizabethan stage, it is at 
least not unwortliy of the models which have inspired it." — Times. 

Fcap. 8i'o., jiarchmeuf. 

Tamerlane and other Poems. 



First published at Boston in 1827, and now first republished 
from a unique copy of the original edition, with a preface by 
Richard Heene Shepherd. 

Mr. Swinburne has generously praised "sobcantiful and valuable a littla 
volume, full of interest for the admirers of Poo's singular and e.\quLsite 


MR. redway's publications. 19 

Just ready, in demy Svo., choicely printed, and bound in Japanese 
parchment. Price 7,s\ 6(/. 

Primitive Symbolism 

As Illustrated in Phallic Worship ; or, The Eeproductive 




With an Introduction by General Forlong, Author of 
"Rivers of Life." 

"This work is a muHum in parvo of the growtli and spread of Phallicism, as 
we commonly call the worship of nature or fertilizing powers. I felt, when 
solicited to enlarge and illusti'ate it on the sudden death of the lamented 
author, that it would be desecration to touch so complete a compendium by 
one of the most competent and soundest thinkers who liave written on this 
world-wide faith. None knew better or saw more clearly than Mr. \Vestropi> 
that in this oldest symbolism and worship lay the foundations of all the 
goodly systems we callreligious." — J. G. R. Forlono. 

In large crown %vo. Price 3s. Qd. 

Sithron, the Star Stricken. 

Translated [Ala herehet Allah) from an ancient Arabic Manuscript. 


SALEM BEN TJZAIR, of Bassora. 

" This very remarkable book, ' Sithron "... is a bold, pungent, andacioua 
satire upon the ancient religious belief of the Jews. ... No one can read the 
book without homage to the force, the tenderness, and the never-failing skill 
of its writer." — St. James's Gazette. 



MR. REDWAy'S publications. 

Post free, price Zd, 

The Literature of Occultism and 

Being a Catalogue of Books ON SALE relating to 

^Vncient Worships. 

-Inimal Magnetism. 
Ancient History. 
Behmen and the Mystics. 

Dreams and "Visions. 
Divining Rod. 

Hieroglyjjhics and Secret "Writ- 

India and the Hindus. 

Magic and Magicians, 


Mithraic Worship 









Occult Sciences, 

Phallic Worship. 






Palmistry and Handwriting. 






Roinid Towers. 



Skeptics, Jesuits, Christians and 

Serpent Worship. 
Secret Societies. 
Theology and Criticism. 



In preparation. 

The Praise of Ale j 


Songs, Ballads, Epigrams, and Anecdotes relating to 

Beer, Malt, and Hops. 

Collected and arranged by 

S^ Send for Prospectus. 

In preparation. 

Park's History and Topography of 

Revised and brought down to the Present Time. 



Editor of " Walford's Antiquarian." 

ew Send for Prospectus. 



Nearly readif. Vol IV. 

Welle risms. 



A collection of all the " good things " for which the Wellers, jiire 
etjils, are famous — a posy culled from the pages of Pickwick- and 
Master Humphrey's Clock. 


Nearly ready. 

The Curate's Wife, 



Mrs. J. E. PANTON, 

Author of "Sketches in Black and White." 

Nearly ready. 

The History of the Forty Vezirs ; 


T/:e Story of the Forty Morns and Eves, 

Written in Turkish by Shetkh-Zada, and now done into Endish 
by E. J. W. GiBB, M.R.A.S. 



In preparation. 

Sea Songs and River Rhymes. 

A Selection of English Verse, from Chaucer to Swinburxf. 



With Etchings iy Maclcaness. 

This is a Collection of Poems and Passnges by English Writers on 
the subject of the Sea and Rivers, and covers the whole of the 
ground between Spenser and Tennyson. It includes munerous 
coijyright Poems, for the rejirodnction of which the author and 
publishers have given their permission. 

Nearly ready. 

Essays in the Study ot Folk-Songs. 



















24 MR. redway's pubijcatioxs. 

Sliortly vill he puh!is/i<'(/ in Svo. hawhomdy j'rinted on antiqjic 
paper, and tadcfull ij hound. Price Is. to Suhscribers, 

Pope Joan 


A Historical Study. Translated from the Greek of Emmanuel 
Rhoiidis, with Preface by 


'• Tlic subject of Pope Joan has not yet lost the interest which belongs to it, 
ltd a fact in the province of historical criticism." — Dr. DiilUniicr. 


The Comedies and Farces 



Now first collected and carefully reprinted from the Original Editions, 
with Annotations and Critical and Bibliographical Preface, 



Jn Tiro Volumes. 

Some of these plays have become very scarce ; and of those which have kept 
the stage, the text has been more or less corrupted. 


Beauty and the Beast. 

A Story in Verse for Children by Charles Lamb. Now first 
reprinted from the Unique Original, with Preface and Notes 



Onli/ 100 Copies j)rinted. 





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IN U. S. A. 

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